Editing

Nvim :help pages, generated from source using the tree-sitter-vimdoc parser.


Editing files

1. Introduction edit-intro

Editing a file with Vim means:
1. reading the file into a buffer 2. changing the buffer with editor commands 3. writing the buffer into a file
current-file As long as you don't write the buffer, the original file remains unchanged. If you start editing a file (read a file into the buffer), the file name is remembered as the "current file name". This is also known as the name of the current buffer. It can be used with "%" on the command line :_%.
alternate-file If there already was a current file name, then that one becomes the alternate file name. It can be used with "#" on the command line :_# and you can use the CTRL-^ command to toggle between the current and the alternate file. However, the alternate file name is not changed when :keepalt is used. An alternate file name is remembered for each window.
:keepalt :keepa :keepalt {cmd} Execute {cmd} while keeping the current alternate file name. Note that commands invoked indirectly (e.g., with a function) may still set the alternate file name.
All file names are remembered in the buffer list. When you enter a file name, for editing (e.g., with ":e filename") or writing (e.g., with ":w filename"), the file name is added to the list. You can use the buffer list to remember which files you edited and to quickly switch from one file to another (e.g., to copy text) with the CTRL-^ command. First type the number of the file and then hit CTRL-^.
CTRL-G or CTRL-G :f :fi :file :f[ile] Prints the current file name (as typed, unless ":cd" was used), the cursor position (unless the 'ruler' option is set), and the file status (readonly, modified, read errors, new file). See the 'shortmess' option about how to make this message shorter.
:f[ile]! like :file, but don't truncate the name even when 'shortmess' indicates this.
{count}CTRL-G Like CTRL-G, but prints the current file name with full path. If the count is higher than 1 the current buffer number is also given.
g_CTRL-G word-count byte-count g CTRL-G Prints the current position of the cursor in five ways: Column, Line, Word, Character and Byte. If the number of Characters and Bytes is the same then the Character position is omitted.
If there are characters in the line that take more than one position on the screen (<Tab> or special character), or characters using more than one byte per column (characters above 0x7F when 'encoding' is utf-8), both the byte column and the screen column are shown, separated by a dash.
Also see the 'ruler' option and the wordcount() function.
v_g_CTRL-G {Visual}g CTRL-G Similar to "g CTRL-G", but Word, Character, Line, and Byte counts for the visually selected region are displayed. In Blockwise mode, Column count is also shown. (For {Visual} see Visual-mode.)
:file_f :f[ile][!] {name} Sets the current file name to {name}. The optional ! avoids truncating the message, as with :file. If the buffer did have a name, that name becomes the alternate-file name. An unlisted buffer is created to hold the old name. :0file :0f[ile][!] Remove the name of the current buffer. The optional ! avoids truncating the message, as with :file.
:buffers :files :ls List all the currently known file names. See windows.txt :files :buffers :ls.
Vim will remember the full path name of a file name that you enter. In most cases when the file name is displayed only the name you typed is shown, but the full path name is being used if you used the ":cd" command :cd.
home-replace If the environment variable $HOME is set, and the file name starts with that string, it is often displayed with HOME replaced with "~". This was done to keep file names short. When reading or writing files the full name is still used, the "~" is only used when displaying file names. When replacing the file name would result in just "~", "~/" is used instead (to avoid confusion between options set to $HOME with 'backupext' set to "~").
When writing the buffer, the default is to use the current file name. Thus when you give the "ZZ" or ":wq" command, the original file will be overwritten. If you do not want this, the buffer can be written into another file by giving a file name argument to the ":write" command. For example:
vim testfile
[change the buffer with editor commands]
:w newfile
:q
This will create a file "newfile", that is a modified copy of "testfile". The file "testfile" will remain unchanged. Anyway, if the 'backup' option is set, Vim renames or copies the original file before it will be overwritten. You can use this file if you discover that you need the original file. See also the 'patchmode' option. The name of the backup file is normally the same as the original file with 'backupext' appended. The default "~" is a bit strange to avoid accidentally overwriting existing files. If you prefer ".bak" change the 'backupext' option. The backup file can be placed in another directory by setting 'backupdir'.
When you started editing without giving a file name, "No File" is displayed in messages. If the ":write" command is used with a file name argument, the file name for the current file is set to that file name. This only happens when the 'F' flag is included in 'cpoptions' (by default it is included) cpo-F. This is useful when entering text in an empty buffer and then writing it to a file. If 'cpoptions' contains the 'f' flag (by default it is NOT included) cpo-f the file name is set for the ":read file" command. This is useful when starting Vim without an argument and then doing ":read file" to start editing a file. When the file name was set and 'filetype' is empty the filetype detection autocommands will be triggered. not-edited Because the file name was set without really starting to edit that file, you are protected from overwriting that file. This is done by setting the "notedited" flag. You can see if this flag is set with the CTRL-G or ":file" command. It will include "[Not edited]" when the "notedited" flag is set. When writing the buffer to the current file name (with ":w!"), the "notedited" flag is reset.
abandon Vim remembers whether you have changed the buffer. You are protected from losing the changes you made. If you try to quit without writing, or want to start editing another file, Vim will refuse this. In order to overrule this protection, add a '!' to the command. The changes will then be lost. For example: ":q" will not work if the buffer was changed, but ":q!" will. To see whether the buffer was changed use the "CTRL-G" command. The message includes the string "[Modified]" if the buffer has been changed, or "+" if the 'm' flag is in 'shortmess'.
If you want to automatically save the changes without asking, switch on the 'autowriteall' option. 'autowrite' is the associated Vi-compatible option that does not work for all commands.
If you want to keep the changed buffer without saving it, switch on the 'hidden' option. See hidden-buffer. Some commands work like this even when 'hidden' is not set, check the help for the command.

2. Editing a file edit-a-file

:e :edit reload :e[dit] [++opt] [+cmd] Edit the current file. This is useful to re-edit the current file, when it has been changed outside of Vim. This fails when changes have been made to the current buffer and 'autowriteall' isn't set or the file can't be written. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:edit! discard :e[dit]! [++opt] [+cmd] Edit the current file always. Discard any changes to the current buffer. This is useful if you want to start all over again. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:edit_f :e[dit] [++opt] [+cmd] {file} Edit {file}. This fails when changes have been made to the current buffer, unless 'hidden' is set or 'autowriteall' is set and the file can be written. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:edit!_f :e[dit]! [++opt] [+cmd] {file} Edit {file} always. Discard any changes to the current buffer. Also see ++opt and +cmd. :edit_# :e# :e[dit] [++opt] [+cmd] #[count] Edit the [count]th buffer (as shown by :files). This command does the same as [count] CTRL-^. But ":e #" doesn't work if the alternate buffer doesn't have a file name, while CTRL-^ still works then. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:ene :enew :ene[w] Edit a new, unnamed buffer. This fails when changes have been made to the current buffer, unless 'hidden' is set or 'autowriteall' is set and the file can be written. If 'fileformats' is not empty, the first format given will be used for the new buffer. If 'fileformats' is empty, the 'fileformat' of the current buffer is used.
:ene! :enew! :ene[w]! Edit a new, unnamed buffer. Discard any changes to the current buffer. Set 'fileformat' like :enew.
:fin :find :fin[d][!] [++opt] [+cmd] {file} Find {file} in 'path' and then :edit it.
:{count}fin[d][!] [++opt] [+cmd] {file} Just like ":find", but use the {count} match in 'path'. Thus ":2find file" will find the second "file" found in 'path'. When there are fewer matches for the file in 'path' than asked for, you get an error message.
:ex :ex [++opt] [+cmd] [file] Same as :edit.
:vi :visual :vi[sual][!] [++opt] [+cmd] [file] When used in Ex mode: Leave Ex-mode, go back to Normal mode. Otherwise same as :edit.
:vie :view :vie[w][!] [++opt] [+cmd] file When used in Ex mode: Leave Ex-mode, go back to Normal mode. Otherwise same as :edit, but set 'readonly' option for this buffer.
CTRL-^ CTRL-6 CTRL-^ Edit the alternate file. Mostly the alternate file is the previously edited file. This is a quick way to toggle between two files. It is equivalent to ":e #", except that it also works when there is no file name.
If the 'autowrite' or 'autowriteall' option is on and the buffer was changed, write it. Mostly the ^ character is positioned on the 6 key, pressing CTRL and 6 then gets you what we call CTRL-^. But on some non-US keyboards CTRL-^ is produced in another way.
{count}CTRL-^ Edit [count]th file in the buffer list (equivalent to ":e #[count]"). This is a quick way to switch between files. See CTRL-^ above for further details.
gf E446 E447 [count]gf Edit the file whose name is under or after the cursor. Mnemonic: "goto file". Uses the 'isfname' option to find out which characters are supposed to be in a file name. Trailing punctuation characters ".,:;!" are ignored. Escaped spaces "\ " are reduced to a single space. Uses the 'path' option as a list of directory names to look for the file. See the 'path' option for details about relative directories and wildcards. Uses the 'suffixesadd' option to check for file names with a suffix added. If the file can't be found, 'includeexpr' is used to modify the name and another attempt is done. If a [count] is given, the count'th file that is found in the 'path' is edited. This command fails if Vim refuses to abandon the current file. If you want to edit the file in a new window use CTRL-W_CTRL-F. If you do want to edit a new file, use:
:e <cfile>
To make gf always work like that:
:map gf :e <cfile><CR>
If the name is a hypertext link, that looks like "type://machine/path", you need the netrw plugin. For Unix the '~' character is expanded, like in "~user/file". Environment variables are expanded too expand-env.
v_gf {Visual}[count]gf Same as "gf", but the highlighted text is used as the name of the file to edit. 'isfname' is ignored. Leading blanks are skipped, otherwise all blanks and special characters are included in the file name. (For {Visual} see Visual-mode.)
gF [count]gF Same as "gf", except if a number follows the file name, then the cursor is positioned on that line in the file. The file name and the number must be separated by a non-filename (see 'isfname') and non-numeric character. " line " is also recognized, like it is used in the output of :verbose command UserCmd White space between the filename, the separator and the number are ignored. Examples:
eval.c:10
eval.c @ 20
eval.c (30)
eval.c 40
v_gF {Visual}[count]gF Same as "v_gf".
These commands are used to start editing a single file. This means that the file is read into the buffer and the current file name is set. The file that is opened depends on the current directory, see :cd.
See read-messages for an explanation of the message that is given after the file has been read.
You can use the ":e!" command if you messed up the buffer and want to start all over again. The ":e" command is only useful if you have changed the current file name.
:filename {file} Besides the things mentioned here, more special items for where a filename is expected are mentioned at cmdline-special.
Note for systems other than Unix: When using a command that accepts a single file name (like ":edit file") spaces in the file name are allowed, but trailing spaces are ignored. This is useful on systems that regularly embed spaces in file names (like MS-Windows). Example: The command ":e Long File Name " will edit the file "Long File Name". When using a command that accepts more than one file name (like ":next file1 file2") embedded spaces must be escaped with a backslash.
wildcard wildcards Wildcards in {file} are expanded, but as with file completion, 'wildignore' and 'suffixes' apply. Which wildcards are supported depends on the system. These are the common ones: ? matches one character * matches anything, including nothing ** matches anything, including nothing, recurses into directories [abc] match 'a', 'b' or 'c'
To avoid the special meaning of the wildcards prepend a backslash. However, on MS-Windows the backslash is a path separator and "path\[abc]" is still seen as a wildcard when "[" is in the 'isfname' option. A simple way to avoid this is to use "path\[[]abc]", this matches the file "path\[abc]".
starstar-wildcard Expanding "**" is possible on Unix, Win32, macOS and a few other systems. This allows searching a directory tree. This goes up to 100 directories deep. Note there are some commands where this works slightly differently, see file-searching. Example:
:n **/*.txt
Finds files:
aaa.txt
subdir/bbb.txt
a/b/c/d/ccc.txt
When non-wildcard characters are used right before or after "**" these are only matched in the top directory. They are not used for directories further down in the tree. For example:
:n /usr/inc**/types.h
Finds files:
/usr/include/types.h
/usr/include/sys/types.h
/usr/inc/old/types.h
Note that the path with "/sys" is included because it does not need to match "/inc". Thus it's like matching "/usr/inc*/*/*...", not "/usr/inc*/inc*/inc*".
backtick-expansion `-expansion On Unix and a few other systems you can also use backticks for the file name argument, for example:
:next `find . -name ver\\*.c -print`
:view `ls -t *.patch  \| head -n1`
Vim will run the command in backticks using the 'shell' and use the standard output as argument for the given Vim command (error messages from the shell command will be discarded). To see what shell command Vim is running, set the 'verbose' option to 4. When the shell command returns a non-zero exit code, an error message will be displayed and the Vim command will be aborted. To avoid this make the shell always return zero like so:
:next `find . -name ver\\*.c -print \|\| true`
The backslashes before the star are required to prevent the shell from expanding "ver*.c" prior to execution of the find program. The backslash before the shell pipe symbol "|" prevents Vim from parsing it as command termination. This also works for most other systems, with the restriction that the backticks must be around the whole item. It is not possible to have text directly before the first or just after the last backtick.
`= You can have the backticks expanded as a Vim expression, instead of as an external command, by putting an equal sign right after the first backtick, e.g.:
:e `=tempname()`
The expression can contain just about anything, thus this can also be used to avoid the special meaning of '"', '|', '%' and '#'. However, 'wildignore' does apply like to other wildcards.
Environment variables in the expression are expanded when evaluating the expression, thus this works:
:e `=$HOME .. '/.vimrc'`
This uses $HOME inside a string and it will be used literally, most likely not what you intended:
:e `='$HOME' .. '/.vimrc'`
If the expression returns a string then names are to be separated with line breaks. When the result is a List then each item is used as a name. Line breaks also separate names. Note that such expressions are only supported in places where a filename is expected as an argument to an Ex-command.
++opt [++opt] The [++opt] argument can be used to force the value of 'fileformat', 'fileencoding' or 'binary' to a value for one command, and to specify the behavior for bad characters. The form is:
++{optname}
Or:
++{optname}={value}
Where {optname} is one of: ++ff ++enc ++bin ++nobin ++edit ff or fileformat overrides 'fileformat' enc or encoding overrides 'fileencoding' bin or binary sets 'binary' nobin or nobinary resets 'binary' bad specifies behavior for bad characters edit for :read only: keep option values as if editing a file p creates the parent directory (or directories) of a filename if they do not exist
{value} cannot contain white space. It can be any valid value for these options. Examples:
:e ++ff=unix
This edits the same file again with 'fileformat' set to "unix".
:w ++enc=latin1 newfile
This writes the current buffer to "newfile" in latin1 format.
The message given when writing a file will show "[converted]" when 'fileencoding' or the value specified with ++enc differs from 'encoding'.
There may be several ++opt arguments, separated by white space. They must all appear before any +cmd argument.
++bad The argument of "++bad=" specifies what happens with characters that can't be converted and illegal bytes. It can be one of three things: ++bad=X A single-byte character that replaces each bad character. ++bad=keep Keep bad characters without conversion. Note that this may result in illegal bytes in your text! ++bad=drop Remove the bad characters.
The default is like "++bad=?": Replace each bad character with a question mark. In some places an inverted question mark is used (0xBF).
Note that not all commands use the ++bad argument, even though they do not give an error when you add it. E.g. :write.
Note that when reading, the 'fileformat' and 'fileencoding' options will be set to the used format. When writing this doesn't happen, thus a next write will use the old value of the option. Same for the 'binary' option.
+cmd [+cmd] The [+cmd] argument can be used to position the cursor in the newly opened file, or execute any other command: + Start at the last line. +{num} Start at line {num}. +/{pat} Start at first line containing {pat}. +{command} Execute {command} after opening the new file. {command} is any Ex command. To include a white space in the {pat} or {command}, precede it with a backslash. Double the number of backslashes.
:edit  +/The\ book             file
:edit  +/dir\ dirname\\      file
:edit  +set\ dir=c:\\\\temp  file
Note that in the last example the number of backslashes is halved twice: Once for the "+cmd" argument and once for the ":set" command.
file-formats The 'fileformat' option sets the <EOL> style for a file:
'fileformat' characters name
"dos" <CR><NL> or <NL> DOS format DOS-format "unix" <NL> Unix format Unix-format "mac" <CR> Mac format Mac-format
When reading a file, the mentioned characters are interpreted as the <EOL>. In DOS format (default for Windows), <CR><NL> and <NL> are both interpreted as the <EOL>. Note that when writing the file in DOS format, <CR> characters will be added for each single <NL>. Also see file-read.
When writing a file, the mentioned characters are used for <EOL>. For DOS format <CR><NL> is used. Also see DOS-format-write.
You can read a file in DOS format and write it in Unix format. This will replace all <CR><NL> pairs by <NL> (assuming 'fileformats' includes "dos"):
:e file
:set fileformat=unix
:w
If you read a file in Unix format and write with DOS format, all <NL> characters will be replaced with <CR><NL> (assuming 'fileformats' includes "unix"):
:e file
:set fileformat=dos
:w
If you start editing a new file and the 'fileformats' option is not empty (which is the default), Vim will try to detect whether the lines in the file are separated by the specified formats. When set to "unix,dos", Vim will check for lines with a single <NL> (as used on Unix) or by a <CR><NL> pair (MS-Windows). Only when ALL lines end in <CR><NL>, 'fileformat' is set to "dos", otherwise it is set to "unix". When 'fileformats' includes "mac", and no <NL> characters are found in the file, 'fileformat' is set to "mac".
If the 'fileformat' option is set to "dos" on non-MS-Windows systems the message "[dos format]" is shown to remind you that something unusual is happening. On MS-Windows systems you get the message "[unix format]" if 'fileformat' is set to "unix". On all systems but the Macintosh you get the message "[mac format]" if 'fileformat' is set to "mac".
If the 'fileformats' option is empty and DOS format is used, but while reading a file some lines did not end in <CR><NL>, "[CR missing]" will be included in the file message. If the 'fileformats' option is empty and Mac format is used, but while reading a file a <NL> was found, "[NL missing]" will be included in the file message.
If the new file does not exist, the 'fileformat' of the current buffer is used when 'fileformats' is empty. Otherwise the first format from 'fileformats' is used for the new file.
Before editing binary, executable or Vim script files you should set the 'binary' option. A simple way to do this is by starting Vim with the "-b" option. This will avoid the use of 'fileformat'. Without this you risk that single <NL> characters are unexpectedly replaced with <CR><NL>.

END OF LINE AND END OF FILE eol-and-eof

Vim has several options to control the file format: 'fileformat' the <EOL> style: Unix, DOS, Mac 'endofline' whether the last line ends with a <EOL> 'endoffile' whether the file ends with a CTRL-Z 'fixendofline' whether to fix eol and eof
The first three values are normally detected automatically when reading the file and are used when writing the text to a file. While editing the buffer it looks like every line has a line ending and the CTRL-Z isn't there (an exception is when 'binary' is set, it works differently then).
The 'fixendofline' option can be used to choose what to write. You can also change the option values to write the file differently than how it was read.
Here are some examples how to use them.
If you want files in Unix format (every line NL terminated):
setl ff=unix fixeol
You should probably do this on any Unix-like system. Also modern MS-Windows systems tend to work well with this. It is recommended to always use this format for Vim scripts.
If you want to use an old MS-DOS file in a modern environment, fixing line endings and dropping CTRL-Z, but keeping the <CR><NL> style <EOL>:
setl ff=dos fixeol
This is useful for many MS-Windows programs, they regularly expect the <CR><NL> line endings.
If you want to drop the final <EOL> and add a final CTRL-Z (e.g. for an old system like CP/M):
setl ff=dos nofixeol noeol eof
If you want to preserve the fileformat exactly as-is, including any final <EOL> and final CTRL-Z:
setl nofixeol

3. The argument list argument-list arglist

If you give more than one file name when starting Vim, this list is remembered as the argument list. You can jump to each file in this list.
Do not confuse this with the buffer list, which you can see with the :buffers command. The argument list was already present in Vi, the buffer list is new in Vim. Every file name in the argument list will also be present in the buffer list (unless it was deleted with :bdel or :bwipe). But it's common that names in the buffer list are not in the argument list.
This subject is introduced in section 07.2 of the user manual.
There is one global argument list, which is used for all windows by default. It is possible to create a new argument list local to a window, see :arglocal.
You can use the argument list with the following commands, and with the expression functions argc() and argv(). These all work on the argument list of the current window.
:ar :arg :args :ar[gs] Print the argument list, with the current file in square brackets.
:ar[gs] [++opt] [+cmd] {arglist} :args_f Define {arglist} as the new argument list and edit the first one. This fails when changes have been made and Vim does not want to abandon the current buffer. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:ar[gs]! [++opt] [+cmd] {arglist} :args_f! Define {arglist} as the new argument list and edit the first one. Discard any changes to the current buffer. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:[count]arge[dit][!] [++opt] [+cmd] {name} .. :arge :argedit Add {name}s to the argument list and edit it. When {name} already exists in the argument list, this entry is edited. This is like using :argadd and then :edit. Spaces in filenames have to be escaped with "\". [count] is used like with :argadd. If the current file cannot be abandoned {name}s will still be added to the argument list, but won't be edited. No check for duplicates is done. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:[count]arga[dd] {name} .. :arga :argadd E479 :[count]arga[dd] Add the {name}s to the argument list. When {name} is omitted add the current buffer name to the argument list. If [count] is omitted, the {name}s are added just after the current entry in the argument list. Otherwise they are added after the [count]'th file. If the argument list is "a b c", and "b" is the current argument, then these commands result in:
command new argument list
:argadd x a b x c :0argadd x x a b c :1argadd x a x b c :$argadd x a b c x And after the last one: :+2argadd y a b c x y There is no check for duplicates, it is possible to add a file to the argument list twice. You can use :argdedupe to fix it afterwards:
:argadd *.txt | argdedupe
The currently edited file is not changed. Note: you can also use this method:
:args ## x
This will add the "x" item and sort the new list.
:argded[upe] :argded :argdedupe Remove duplicate filenames from the argument list. If your current file is a duplicate, your current file will change to the original file index.
:argd[elete] {pattern} .. :argd :argdelete E480 E610 Delete files from the argument list that match the {pattern}s. {pattern} is used like a file pattern, see file-pattern. "%" can be used to delete the current entry. This command keeps the currently edited file, also when it's deleted from the argument list. Example:
:argdel *.obj
:[range]argd[elete] Delete the [range] files from the argument list. Example:
:10,$argdel
Deletes arguments 10 and further, keeping 1-9.
:$argd
Deletes just the last one.
:argd
:.argd
Deletes the current argument.
:%argd
Removes all the files from the arglist. When the last number in the range is too high, up to the last argument is deleted.
:argu :argument :[count]argu[ment] [count] [++opt] [+cmd] Edit file [count] in the argument list. When [count] is omitted the current entry is used. This fails when changes have been made and Vim does not want to abandon the current buffer. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:[count]argu[ment]! [count] [++opt] [+cmd] Edit file [count] in the argument list, discard any changes to the current buffer. When [count] is omitted the current entry is used. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:[count]n[ext] [++opt] [+cmd] :n :ne :next E165 E163 Edit [count] next file. This fails when changes have been made and Vim does not want to abandon the current buffer. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:[count]n[ext]! [++opt] [+cmd] Edit [count] next file, discard any changes to the buffer. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:n[ext] [++opt] [+cmd] {arglist} :next_f Same as :args_f.
:n[ext]! [++opt] [+cmd] {arglist} Same as :args_f!.
:[count]N[ext] [count] [++opt] [+cmd] :Next :N E164 Edit [count] previous file in argument list. This fails when changes have been made and Vim does not want to abandon the current buffer. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:[count]N[ext]! [count] [++opt] [+cmd] Edit [count] previous file in argument list. Discard any changes to the buffer. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:[count]prev[ious] [count] [++opt] [+cmd] :prev :previous Same as :Next. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:rew :rewind :rew[ind] [++opt] [+cmd] Start editing the first file in the argument list. This fails when changes have been made and Vim does not want to abandon the current buffer. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:rew[ind]! [++opt] [+cmd] Start editing the first file in the argument list. Discard any changes to the buffer. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:fir :first :fir[st][!] [++opt] [+cmd] Other name for ":rewind".
:la :last :la[st] [++opt] [+cmd] Start editing the last file in the argument list. This fails when changes have been made and Vim does not want to abandon the current buffer. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:la[st]! [++opt] [+cmd] Start editing the last file in the argument list. Discard any changes to the buffer. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:wn :wnext :[count]wn[ext] [++opt] Write current file and start editing the [count] next file. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:[count]wn[ext] [++opt] {file} Write current file to {file} and start editing the [count] next file, unless {file} already exists and the 'writeany' option is off. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:[count]wn[ext]! [++opt] {file} Write current file to {file} and start editing the [count] next file. Also see ++opt and +cmd.
:[count]wN[ext][!] [++opt] [file] :wN :wNext :[count]wp[revious][!] [++opt] [file] :wp :wprevious Same as :wnext, but go to previous file instead of next.
The [count] in the commands above defaults to one. For some commands it is possible to use two counts. The last one (rightmost one) is used.
If no [+cmd] argument is present, the cursor is positioned at the last known cursor position for the file. If 'startofline' is set, the cursor will be positioned at the first non-blank in the line, otherwise the last know column is used. If there is no last known cursor position the cursor will be in the first line (the last line in Ex mode).
{arglist} The wildcards in the argument list are expanded and the file names are sorted. Thus you can use the command "vim.c" to edit all the C files. From within Vim the command ":n.c" does the same.
White space is used to separate file names. Put a backslash before a space or tab to include it in a file name. E.g., to edit the single file "foo bar":
:next foo\ bar
On Unix and a few other systems you can also use backticks, for example:
:next `find . -name \\*.c -print`
The backslashes before the star are required to prevent "*.c" to be expanded by the shell before executing the find program.
arglist-position When there is an argument list you can see which file you are editing in the title of the window (if there is one and 'title' is on) and with the file message you get with the "CTRL-G" command. You will see something like (file 4 of 11) If 'shortmess' contains 'f' it will be (4 of 11) If you are not really editing the file at the current position in the argument list it will be (file (4) of 11) This means that you are position 4 in the argument list, but not editing the fourth file in the argument list. This happens when you do ":e file".

LOCAL ARGUMENT LIST

:arglocal :argl[ocal] Make a local copy of the global argument list. Doesn't start editing another file.
:argl[ocal][!] [++opt] [+cmd] {arglist} Define a new argument list, which is local to the current window. Works like :args_f otherwise.
:argglobal :argg[lobal] Use the global argument list for the current window. Doesn't start editing another file.
:argg[lobal][!] [++opt] [+cmd] {arglist} Use the global argument list for the current window. Define a new global argument list like :args_f. All windows using the global argument list will see this new list.
There can be several argument lists. They can be shared between windows. When they are shared, changing the argument list in one window will also change it in the other window.
When a window is split the new window inherits the argument list from the current window. The two windows then share this list, until one of them uses :arglocal or :argglobal to use another argument list.

USING THE ARGUMENT LIST

:argdo :[range]argdo[!] {cmd} Execute {cmd} for each file in the argument list or, if [range] is specified, only for arguments in that range. It works like doing this:
:rewind
:{cmd}
:next
:{cmd}
etc.
When the current file can't be abandoned and the [!] is not present, the command fails. When an error is detected on one file, further files in the argument list will not be visited. The last file in the argument list (or where an error occurred) becomes the current file. {cmd} can contain '|' to concatenate several commands. {cmd} must not change the argument list. Note: While this command is executing, the Syntax autocommand event is disabled by adding it to 'eventignore'. This considerably speeds up editing each file. Also see :windo, :tabdo, :bufdo, :cdo, :ldo, :cfdo and :lfdo.
Example:
:args *.c
:argdo set ff=unix | update
This sets the 'fileformat' option to "unix" and writes the file if it is now changed. This is done for all.c files.
Example:
:args *.[ch]
:argdo %s/\<my_foo\>/My_Foo/ge | update
This changes the word "my_foo" to "My_Foo" in all *.c and *.h files. The "e" flag is used for the ":substitute" command to avoid an error for files where "my_foo" isn't used. ":update" writes the file only if changes were made.

4. Writing writing save-file

Note: When the 'write' option is off, you are not able to write any file.
:w :write E502 E503 E504 E505 E512 E514 E667 E949 :w[rite] [++opt] Write the whole buffer to the current file. This is the normal way to save changes to a file. It fails when the 'readonly' option is set or when there is another reason why the file can't be written. For ++opt see ++opt, but only ++bin, ++nobin, ++ff and ++enc are effective.
:w[rite]! [++opt] Like ":write", but forcefully write when 'readonly' is set or there is another reason why writing was refused. Note: This may change the permission and ownership of the file and break (symbolic) links. Add the 'W' flag to 'cpoptions' to avoid this.
:[range]w[rite][!] [++opt] Write the specified lines to the current file. This is unusual, because the file will not contain all lines in the buffer.
:w_f :write_f :[range]w[rite] [++opt] {file} Write the specified lines to {file}, unless it already exists and the 'writeany' option is off.
:w! :[range]w[rite]! [++opt] {file} Write the specified lines to {file}. Overwrite an existing file.
:w_a :write_a E494 :[range]w[rite][!] [++opt] >
Append the specified lines to the current file.
:[range]w[rite][!] [++opt] >> {file} Append the specified lines to {file}. '!' forces the write even if file does not exist.
:w_c :write_c :[range]w[rite] [++opt] !{cmd} Execute {cmd} with [range] lines as standard input (note the space in front of the '!'). {cmd} is executed like with ":!{cmd}", any '!' is replaced with the previous command :!.
The default [range] for the ":w" command is the whole buffer (1,$). If you write the whole buffer, it is no longer considered changed. When you write it to a different file with ":w somefile" it depends on the "+" flag in 'cpoptions'. When included, the write command will reset the 'modified' flag, even though the buffer itself may still be different from its file.
If a file name is given with ":w" it becomes the alternate file. This can be used, for example, when the write fails and you want to try again later with ":w #". This can be switched off by removing the 'A' flag from the 'cpoptions' option.
Note that the 'fsync' option matters here. If it's set it may make writes slower (but safer).
:sav :saveas :sav[eas][!] [++opt] {file} Save the current buffer under the name {file} and set the filename of the current buffer to {file}. The previous name is used for the alternate file name. The [!] is needed to overwrite an existing file. When 'filetype' is empty filetype detection is done with the new name, before the file is written. When the write was successful 'readonly' is reset.
:up :update :[range]up[date][!] [++opt] [>>] [file] Like ":write", but only write when the buffer has been modified.

WRITING WITH MULTIPLE BUFFERS buffer-write

:wa :wall :wa[ll] Write all changed buffers. Buffers without a file name cause an error message. Buffers which are readonly are not written.
:wa[ll]! Write all changed buffers, even the ones that are readonly. Buffers without a file name are not written and cause an error message.
Vim will warn you if you try to overwrite a file that has been changed elsewhere (unless "!" was used). See timestamp.
backup E207 E506 E507 E508 E509 E510 If you write to an existing file (but do not append) while the 'backup', 'writebackup' or 'patchmode' option is on, a backup of the original file is made. The file is either copied or renamed (see 'backupcopy'). After the file has been successfully written and when the 'writebackup' option is on and the 'backup' option is off, the backup file is deleted. When the 'patchmode' option is on the backup file may be renamed.
backup-table off off no backup made off on backup current file, deleted afterwards (default) on off delete old backup, backup current file on on delete old backup, backup current file
When the 'backupskip' pattern matches with the name of the file which is written, no backup file is made. The values of 'backup' and 'writebackup' are ignored then.
When the 'backup' option is on, an old backup file (with the same name as the new backup file) will be deleted. If 'backup' is not set, but 'writebackup' is set, an existing backup file will not be deleted. The backup file that is made while the file is being written will have a different name.
On some filesystems it's possible that in a crash you lose both the backup and the newly written file (it might be there but contain bogus data). In that case try recovery, because the swap file is synced to disk and might still be there. :recover
The directories given with the 'backupdir' option are used to put the backup file in. (default: same directory as the written file).
Whether the backup is a new file, which is a copy of the original file, or the original file renamed depends on the 'backupcopy' option. See there for an explanation of when the copy is made and when the file is renamed.
If the creation of a backup file fails, the write is not done. If you want to write anyway add a '!' to the command.
write-permissions When writing a new file the permissions are read-write. For unix the mask is 0o666 with additionally umask applied. When writing a file that was read Vim will preserve the permissions, but clear the s-bit.
write-readonly When the 'cpoptions' option contains 'W', Vim will refuse to overwrite a readonly file. When 'W' is not present, ":w!" will overwrite a readonly file, if the system allows it (the directory must be writable).
write-fail If the writing of the new file fails, you have to be careful not to lose your changes AND the original file. If there is no backup file and writing the new file failed, you have already lost the original file! DON'T EXIT VIM UNTIL YOU WRITE OUT THE FILE! If a backup was made, it is put back in place of the original file (if possible). If you exit Vim, and lose the changes you made, the original file will mostly still be there. If putting back the original file fails, there will be an error message telling you that you lost the original file.
DOS-format-write If the 'fileformat' is "dos", <CR><NL> is used for <EOL>. This is default for Windows. On other systems the message "[dos format]" is shown to remind you that an unusual <EOL> was used. Unix-format-write If the 'fileformat' is "unix", <NL> is used for <EOL>. On Windows the message "[unix format]" is shown. Mac-format-write If the 'fileformat' is "mac", <CR> is used for <EOL>. On non-Mac systems the message "[mac format]" is shown.
See also file-formats and the 'fileformat' and 'fileformats' options.
ACL ACL stands for Access Control List. It is an advanced way to control access rights for a file. It is used on new MS-Windows and Unix systems, but only when the filesystem supports it. Vim attempts to preserve the ACL info when writing a file. The backup file will get the ACL info of the original file. The ACL info is also used to check if a file is read-only (when opening the file).
read-only-share When MS-Windows shares a drive on the network it can be marked as read-only. This means that even if the file read-only attribute is absent, and the ACL settings on NT network shared drives allow writing to the file, you can still not write to the file. Vim on Win32 platforms will detect read-only network drives and will mark the file as read-only. You will not be able to override it with :write.
write-device When the file name is actually a device name, Vim will not make a backup (that would be impossible). You need to use "!", since the device already exists. Example for Unix:
:w! /dev/lpt0
and MS-Windows:
:w! lpt0
For Unix a device is detected when the name doesn't refer to a normal file or a directory. A fifo or named pipe also looks like a device to Vim. For MS-Windows the device is detected by its name: CON CLOCK$ NUL PRN COMn n=1,2,3... etc LPTn n=1,2,3... etc The names can be in upper- or lowercase.

5. Writing and quitting write-quit

:q :quit :q[uit] Quit the current window. Quit Vim if this is the last edit-window. This fails when changes have been made and Vim refuses to abandon the current buffer, and when the last file in the argument list has not been edited. If there are other tab pages and quitting the last window in the current tab page the current tab page is closed tab-page. Triggers the QuitPre autocommand event. See CTRL-W_q for quitting another window.
:conf[irm] q[uit] Quit, but give prompt when changes have been made, or the last file in the argument list has not been edited. See :confirm and 'confirm'.
:q[uit]! Quit without writing, also when the current buffer has changes. The buffer is unloaded, also when it has 'hidden' set. If this is the last window and there is a modified hidden buffer, the current buffer is abandoned and the first changed hidden buffer becomes the current buffer. Use ":qall!" to exit always.
:cq[uit] Quit always, without writing, and return an error code. See :cq.
:wq :wq [++opt] Write the current file and close the window. If this was the last edit-window Vim quits. Writing fails when the file is read-only or the buffer does not have a name. Quitting fails when the last file in the argument list has not been edited.
:wq! [++opt] Write the current file and close the window. If this was the last edit-window Vim quits. Writing fails when the current buffer does not have a name.
:wq [++opt] {file} Write to {file} and close the window. If this was the last edit-window Vim quits. Quitting fails when the last file in the argument list has not been edited.
:wq! [++opt] {file} Write to {file} and close the current window. Quit Vim if this was the last edit-window.
:[range]wq[!] [++opt] [file] Same as above, but only write the lines in [range].
:x :xit :[range]x[it][!] [++opt] [file] Like ":wq", but write only when changes have been made. When 'hidden' is set and there are more windows, the current buffer becomes hidden, after writing the file.
:exi :exit :[range]exi[t][!] [++opt] [file] Same as :xit.
ZZ ZZ Write current file, if modified, and close the current window (same as ":x"). If there are several windows for the current file, only the current window is closed.
ZQ ZQ Quit without checking for changes (same as ":q!").

MULTIPLE WINDOWS AND BUFFERS window-exit

:qa :qall :qa[ll] Exit Vim, unless there are some buffers which have been changed. (Use ":bmod" to go to the next modified buffer). When 'autowriteall' is set all changed buffers will be written, like :wqall.
:conf[irm] qa[ll] Exit Vim. Bring up a prompt when some buffers have been changed. See :confirm.
:qa[ll]! Exit Vim. Any changes to buffers are lost. Also see :cquit, it does the same but exits with a non-zero value.
:quita :quitall :quita[ll][!] Same as ":qall".
:wqa[ll] [++opt] :wqa :wqall :xa :xall :xa[ll] Write all changed buffers and exit Vim. If there are buffers without a file name, which are readonly or which cannot be written for another reason, Vim will not quit.
:conf[irm] wqa[ll] [++opt] :conf[irm] xa[ll] Write all changed buffers and exit Vim. Bring up a prompt when some buffers are readonly or cannot be written for another reason. See :confirm.
:wqa[ll]! [++opt] :xa[ll]! Write all changed buffers, even the ones that are readonly, and exit Vim. If there are buffers without a file name or which cannot be written for another reason, Vim will not quit.

6. Dialogs edit-dialogs

:confirm :conf :conf[irm] {command} Execute {command}, and use a dialog when an operation has to be confirmed. Can be used on the :q, :qa and :w commands (the latter to override a read-only setting), and any other command that can fail in such a way, such as :only, :buffer, :bdelete, etc.
Examples:
:confirm w foo
Will ask for confirmation when "foo" already exists.
:confirm q
Will ask for confirmation when there are changes.
:confirm qa
If any modified, unsaved buffers exist, you will be prompted to save or abandon each one. There are also choices to "save all" or "abandon all".
If you want to always use ":confirm", set the 'confirm' option.
:browse :bro E338 E614 E615 E616 :bro[wse] {command} Open a file selection dialog for an argument to {command}. At present this works for :e, :w, :wall, :wq, :wqall, :x, :xall, :exit, :view, :sview, :r, :saveas, :sp, :mkexrc, :mkvimrc, :mksession, :mkview, :split, :vsplit, :tabe, :tabnew, :cfile, :cgetfile, :caddfile, :lfile, :lgetfile, :laddfile, :diffsplit, :diffpatch, :pedit, :redir, :source, :update, :visual, :vsplit, and :qall if 'confirm' is set. {only in Win32 GUI, in console `browse edit` works} if the FileExplorer autocommand group exists} When ":browse" is not possible you get an error message. If {command} doesn't support browsing, the {command} is executed without a dialog. ":browse set" works like :options. See also :oldfiles for ":browse oldfiles".
The syntax is best shown via some examples:
:browse e $vim/foo
Open the browser in the $vim/foo directory, and edit the file chosen.
:browse e
Open the browser in the directory specified with 'browsedir', and edit the file chosen.
:browse w
Open the browser in the directory of the current buffer, with the current buffer filename as default, and save the buffer under the filename chosen.
:browse w C:/bar
Open the browser in the C:/bar directory, with the current buffer filename as default, and save the buffer under the filename chosen. Also see the 'browsedir' option. For versions of Vim where browsing is not supported, the command is executed unmodified.
browsefilter For MS-Windows you can modify the filters that are used in the browse dialog. By setting the g:browsefilter or b:browsefilter variables, you can change the filters globally or locally to the buffer. The variable is set to a string in the format "{filter label}\t{pattern};{pattern}\n" where {filter label} is the text that appears in the "Files of Type" comboBox, and {pattern} is the pattern which filters the filenames. Several patterns can be given, separated by ';'.
For example, to have only Vim files in the dialog, you could use the following command:
let g:browsefilter = "Vim Scripts\t*.vim\nVim Startup Files\t*vimrc\n"
You can override the filter setting on a per-buffer basis by setting the b:browsefilter variable. You would most likely set b:browsefilter in a filetype plugin, so that the browse dialog would contain entries related to the type of file you are currently editing. Disadvantage: This makes it difficult to start editing a file of a different type. To overcome this, you may want to add "All Files\t*.*\n" as the final filter, so that the user can still access any desired file.
To avoid setting browsefilter when Vim does not actually support it, you can use has("browsefilter"):
if has("browsefilter")
   let g:browsefilter = "whatever"
endif

7. The current directory current-directory

You can use :cd, :tcd and :lcd to change to another directory, so you will not have to type that directory name in front of the file names. It also makes a difference for executing external commands, e.g. ":!ls" or ":te ls".
There are three current-directory "scopes": global, tab and window. The window-local working directory takes precedence over the tab-local working directory, which in turn takes precedence over the global working directory. If a local working directory (tab or window) does not exist, the next-higher scope in the hierarchy applies.
:cd E747 E472 :cd[!] On non-Unix systems when 'cdhome' is off: Print the current directory name. Otherwise: Change the current directory to the home directory. Clear any window-local directory. Use :pwd to print the current directory on all systems.
:cd[!] {path} Change the current directory to {path}. If {path} is relative, it is searched for in the directories listed in 'cdpath'. Does not change the meaning of an already opened file, because its full path name is remembered. Files from the arglist may change though! On MS-Windows this also changes the active drive. To change to the directory of the current file:
:cd %:h
:cd- E186 :cd[!] - Change to the previous current directory (before the previous ":cd {path}" command).
:chd :chdir :chd[ir][!] [path] Same as :cd.
:tc :tcd :tc[d][!] {path} Like :cd, but only set the directory for the current tab. The current window will also use this directory. The current directory is not changed for windows in other tabs and for windows in the current tab that have their own window-local directory.
:tcd- :tc[d][!] - Change to the previous current directory (before the previous ":tcd {path}" command).
:tch :tchdir :tch[dir][!] Same as :tcd.
:lc :lcd :lc[d][!] {path} Like :cd, but only set the current directory for the current window. The current directory for other windows or tabs is not changed.
:lch :lchdir :lch[dir][!] Same as :lcd.
:lcd- :lc[d][!] - Change to the previous current directory (before the previous ":lcd {path}" command).
:pw :pwd E187 :pw[d] Print the current directory name. Also see getcwd(). :pwd-verbose When 'verbose' is non-zero, :pwd will also display what scope the current directory was set. Example:
" Set by :cd
:verbose pwd
[global] /path/to/current

" Set by :lcd
:verbose pwd
[window] /path/to/current

" Set by :tcd
:verbose pwd
[tabpage] /path/to/current
So long as no :lcd or :tcd command has been used, all windows share the same current directory. Using a command to jump to another window doesn't change anything for the current directory.
When :lcd has been used for a window, the specified directory becomes the current directory for that window. Windows where the :lcd command has not been used stick to the global or tab-local directory. When jumping to another window the current directory is changed to the last specified local current directory. If none was specified, the global or tab-local directory is used. When creating a new window it inherits the local directory of the current window.
When changing tabs the same behaviour applies. If the current tab has no local working directory the global working directory is used.
When a :cd command is used, the current window and tab will lose their local current directories and will use the global current directory from now on. When a :tcd command is used, only the current window will lose its local working directory.
After using :cd the full path name will be used for reading and writing files. On some networked file systems this may cause problems. The result of using the full path name is that the file names currently in use will remain referring to the same file. Example: If you have a file a:test and a directory a:vim the commands ":e test" ":cd vim" ":w" will overwrite the file a:test and not write a:vim/test. But if you do ":w test" the file a:vim/test will be written, because you gave a new file name and did not refer to a filename before the ":cd".

8. Editing binary files edit-binary

Although Vim was made to edit text files, it is possible to edit binary files. The -b Vim argument (b for binary) makes Vim do file I/O in binary mode, and sets some options for editing binary files ('binary' on, 'textwidth' to 0, 'modeline' off, 'expandtab' off). Setting the 'binary' option has the same effect. Don't forget to do this before reading the file.
There are a few things to remember when editing binary files:
When editing executable files the number of bytes must not change. Use only the "R" or "r" command to change text. Do not delete characters with "x" or by backspacing.
Set the 'textwidth' option to 0. Otherwise lines will unexpectedly be split in two.
When there are not many <EOL>s, the lines will become very long. If you want to edit a line that does not fit on the screen reset the 'wrap' option. Horizontal scrolling is used then. If a line becomes too long (see limits) you cannot edit that line. The line will be split when reading the file. It is also possible that you get an "out of memory" error when reading the file.
Make sure the 'binary' option is set BEFORE loading the file. Otherwise both <CR><NL> and <NL> are considered to end a line and when the file is written the <NL> will be replaced with <CR><NL>.
<Nul> characters are shown on the screen as ^@. You can enter them with "CTRL-V [email protected]" or "CTRL-V 000".
To insert a <NL> character in the file split a line. When writing the buffer to a file a <NL> will be written for the <EOL>.
Vim normally appends an <EOL> at the end of the file if there is none. Setting the 'binary' option prevents this. If you want to add the final <EOL>, set the 'endofline' option. You can also read the value of this option to see if there was an <EOL> for the last line (you cannot see this in the text).

9. Encryption encryption

:X E817 E818 E819 E820 Support for editing encrypted files has been removed. https://github.com/neovim/neovim/issues/694 https://github.com/neovim/neovim/issues/701

10. Timestamps timestamp timestamps

Vim remembers the modification timestamp, mode and size of a file when you begin editing it. This is used to avoid that you have two different versions of the same file (without you knowing this).
After a shell command is run (:!cmd suspend :read! K) timestamps, file modes and file sizes are compared for all buffers in a window. Vim will run any associated FileChangedShell autocommands or display a warning for any files that have changed. In the GUI this happens when Vim regains input focus.
E321 E462 If you want to automatically reload a file when it has been changed outside of Vim, set the 'autoread' option. This doesn't work at the moment you write the file though, only when the file wasn't changed inside of Vim. ignore-timestamp If you do not want to be asked or automatically reload the file, you can use this:
set buftype=nofile
Or, when starting gvim from a shell:
gvim file.log -c "set buftype=nofile"
Note that if a FileChangedShell autocommand is defined you will not get a warning message or prompt. The autocommand is expected to handle this.
There is no warning for a directory (e.g., with netrw-browse). But you do get warned if you started editing a new file and it was created as a directory later.
When Vim notices the timestamp of a file has changed, and the file is being edited in a buffer but has not changed, Vim checks if the contents of the file is equal. This is done by reading the file again (into a hidden buffer, which is immediately deleted again) and comparing the text. If the text is equal, you will get no warning.
If you don't get warned often enough you can use the following command.
:checkt :checktime :checkt[ime] Check if any buffers were changed outside of Vim. This checks and warns you if you would end up with two versions of a file. If this is called from an autocommand, a ":global" command or is not typed the actual check is postponed until a moment the side effects (reloading the file) would be harmless. Each loaded buffer is checked for its associated file being changed. If the file was changed Vim will take action. If there are no changes in the buffer and 'autoread' is set, the buffer is reloaded. Otherwise, you are offered the choice of reloading the file. If the file was deleted you get an error message. If the file previously didn't exist you get a warning if it exists now. Once a file has been checked the timestamp is reset, you will not be warned again. Syntax highlighting, marks, diff status, 'fileencoding', 'fileformat' and 'binary' options are not changed. See v:fcs_choice to reload these too (for example, if a code formatting tools has changed the file).
:[N]checkt[ime] {filename} :[N]checkt[ime] [N] Check the timestamp of a specific buffer. The buffer may be specified by name, number or with a pattern.
E813 E814 Vim will reload the buffer if you chose to. If a window is visible that contains this buffer, the reloading will happen in the context of this window. Otherwise a special window is used, so that most autocommands will work. You can't close this window. A few other restrictions apply. Best is to make sure nothing happens outside of the current buffer. E.g., setting window-local options may end up in the wrong window. Splitting the window, doing something there and closing it should be OK (if there are no side effects from other autocommands). Closing unrelated windows and buffers will get you into trouble.
Before writing a file, the timestamp is checked (unless "!" was used). If it has changed, Vim will ask if you really want to overwrite the file:
WARNING: The file has been changed since reading it!!! Do you really want to write to it (y/n)?
If you hit 'y' Vim will continue writing the file. If you hit 'n' the write is aborted. If you used ":wq" or "ZZ" Vim will not exit, you will get another chance to write the file.
The message would normally mean that somebody has written to the file after the edit session started. This could be another person, in which case you probably want to check if your changes to the file and the changes from the other person should be merged. Write the file under another name and check for differences (the "diff" program can be used for this).
It is also possible that you modified the file yourself, from another edit session or with another command (e.g., a filter command). Then you will know which version of the file you want to keep.
The accuracy of the time check depends on the filesystem. On Unix it is usually sub-second. With old file systems and on MS-Windows it is normally one second. Use has('nanotime') to check if sub-second time stamp checks are available.
There is one situation where you get the message while there is nothing wrong: On a Win32 system on the day daylight saving time starts. There is something in the Win32 libraries that confuses Vim about the hour time difference. The problem goes away the next day.

11. File Searching file-searching

The file searching is currently used for the 'path', 'cdpath' and 'tags' options, for finddir() and findfile(). Other commands use wildcards which is slightly different.
There are three different types of searching:
1) Downward search: starstar Downward search uses the wildcards '', '' and possibly others supported by your operating system. ''and '' are handled inside Vim, so they work on all operating systems. Note that "**" only acts as a special wildcard when it is at the start of a name.
The usage of '' is quite simple: It matches 0 or more characters. In a search pattern this would be ".*". Note that the "." is not used for file searching.
'**' is more sophisticated:
It ONLY matches directories.
It matches up to 30 directories deep by default, so you can use it to search an entire directory tree
The maximum number of levels matched can be given by appending a number to '**'. Thus '/usr/**2' can match:
/usr
/usr/include
/usr/include/sys
/usr/include/g++
/usr/lib
/usr/lib/X11
....
It does NOT match '/usr/include/g++/std' as this would be three levels. The allowed number range is 0 ('**0' is removed) to 100 If the given number is smaller than 0 it defaults to 30, if it's bigger than 100 then 100 is used. The system also has a limit on the path length, usually 256 or 1024 bytes.
'**' can only be at the end of the path or be followed by a path separator or by a number and a path separator.
You can combine ''and '' in any order:
/usr/**/sys/*
/usr/*tory/sys/**
/usr/**2/sys/*
2) Upward search: Here you can give a directory and then search the directory tree upward for a file. You could give stop-directories to limit the upward search. The stop-directories are appended to the path (for the 'path' option) or to the filename (for the 'tags' option) with a ';'. If you want several stop-directories separate them with ';'. If you want no stop-directory ("search upward till the root directory) just use ';'.
/usr/include/sys;/usr
will search in:
/usr/include/sys
/usr/include
/usr
If you use a relative path the upward search is started in Vim's current directory or in the directory of the current file (if the relative path starts with './' and 'd' is not included in 'cpoptions').
If Vim's current path is /u/user_x/work/release and you do
:set path=include;/u/user_x
and then search for a file with gf the file is searched in:
/u/user_x/work/release/include
/u/user_x/work/include
/u/user_x/include
Note: If your 'path' setting includes a non-existing directory, Vim will skip the non-existing directory, and also does not search in the parent of the non-existing directory if upwards searching is used.
3) Combined up/downward search: If Vim's current path is /u/user_x/work/release and you do
set path=**;/u/user_x
and then search for a file with gf the file is searched in:
/u/user_x/work/release/**
/u/user_x/work/**
/u/user_x/**
BE CAREFUL! This might consume a lot of time, as the search of '/u/user_x/**' includes '/u/user_x/work/**' and '/u/user_x/work/release/**'. So '/u/user_x/work/release/**' is searched three times and '/u/user_x/work/**' is searched twice.
In the above example you might want to set path to:
:set path=**,/u/user_x/**
This searches:
/u/user_x/work/release/**
/u/user_x/**
This searches the same directories, but in a different order.
Note that completion for ":find", ":sfind", and ":tabfind" commands do not currently work with 'path' items that contain a URL or use the double star with depth limiter (/usr/**2) or upward search (;) notations.

12. Trusted Files trust

Nvim has the ability to execute arbitrary code through the 'exrc' option. In order to prevent executing code from untrusted sources, Nvim has the concept of "trusted files". An untrusted file will not be executed without the user's consent, and a user can permanently mark a file as trusted or untrusted using the :trust command or the vim.secure.read() function.
:trust E5570 :trust [++deny] [++remove] [{file}]
Manage files in the trust database. Without any options or arguments, :trust adds the file associated with the current buffer to the trust database, along with the SHA256 hash of its contents.
[++deny] marks the file associated with the current buffer (or {file}, if given) as denied; no prompts will be displayed to the user and the file will never be executed.
[++remove] removes the file associated with the current buffer (or {file}, if given) from the trust database. Future attempts to read the file in a secure setting (i.e. with 'exrc' or vim.secure.read()) will prompt the user if the file is trusted.
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