Repeat

Nvim :help pages, generated from source using the tree-sitter-vimdoc parser.


Repeating commands, Vim scripts and debugging
Chapter 26 of the user manual introduces repeating usr_26.txt.

Single repeats single-repeat

. . Repeat last change, with count replaced with [count]. Also repeat a yank command, when the 'y' flag is included in 'cpoptions'. Does not repeat a command-line command.
Simple changes can be repeated with the "." command. Without a count, the count of the last change is used. If you enter a count, it will replace the last one. v:count and v:count1 will be set.
If the last change included a specification of a numbered register, the register number will be incremented. See redo-register for an example how to use this.
Note that when repeating a command that used a Visual selection, the same SIZE of area is used, see visual-repeat.
@: @: Repeat last command-line [count] times.

Multiple repeats multi-repeat

:g :global E148 :[range]g[lobal]/{pattern}/[cmd] Execute the Ex command [cmd] (default ":p") on the lines within [range] where {pattern} matches.
:[range]g[lobal]!/{pattern}/[cmd] Execute the Ex command [cmd] (default ":p") on the lines within [range] where {pattern} does NOT match.
:v :vglobal :[range]v[global]/{pattern}/[cmd] Same as :g!.
Example:
:g/^Obsolete/d _
Using the underscore after :d avoids clobbering registers or the clipboard. This also makes it faster.
Instead of the '/' which surrounds the {pattern}, you can use any other single byte character, but not an alphabetic character, '\', '"' or '|'. This is useful if you want to include a '/' in the search pattern or replacement string.
For the definition of a pattern, see pattern.
NOTE [cmd] may contain a range; see collapse and edit-paragraph-join for examples.
The global commands work by first scanning through the [range] lines and marking each line where a match occurs (for a multi-line pattern, only the start of the match matters). In a second scan the [cmd] is executed for each marked line, as if the cursor was in that line. For ":v" and ":g!" the command is executed for each not marked line. If a line is deleted its mark disappears. The default for [range] is the whole buffer (1,$). Use "CTRL-C" to interrupt the command. If an error message is given for a line, the command for that line is aborted and the global command continues with the next marked or unmarked line. E147 When the command is used recursively, it only works on one line. Giving a range is then not allowed. This is useful to find all lines that match a pattern and do not match another pattern:
:g/found/v/notfound/{cmd}
This first finds all lines containing "found", but only executes {cmd} when there is no match for "notfound".
Any Ex command can be used, see ex-cmd-index. To execute a Normal mode command, you can use the :normal command:
:g/pat/normal {commands}
Make sure that {commands} ends with a whole command, otherwise Vim will wait for you to type the rest of the command for each match. The screen will not have been updated, so you don't know what you are doing. See :normal.
The undo/redo command will undo/redo the whole global command at once. The previous context mark will only be set once (with "''" you go back to where the cursor was before the global command).
The global command sets both the last used search pattern and the last used substitute pattern (this is vi compatible). This makes it easy to globally replace a string: :g/pat/s//PAT/g This replaces all occurrences of "pat" with "PAT". The same can be done with: :%s/pat/PAT/g Which is two characters shorter!
When using "global" in Ex mode, a special case is using ":visual" as a command. This will move to a matching line, go to Normal mode to let you execute commands there until you use gQ to return to Ex mode. This will be repeated for each matching line. While doing this you cannot use ":global". To abort this type CTRL-C twice.

Complex repeats complex-repeat

q recording q{0-9a-zA-Z"} Record typed characters into register {0-9a-zA-Z"} (uppercase to append). The 'q' command is disabled while executing a register, and it doesn't work inside a mapping and :normal.
Note: If the register being used for recording is also used for y and p the result is most likely not what is expected, because the put will paste the recorded macro and the yank will overwrite the recorded macro.
Note: The recording happens while you type, replaying the register happens as if the keys come from a mapping. This matters, for example, for undo, which only syncs when commands were typed.
q Stops recording. Implementation note: The 'q' that stops recording is not stored in the register, unless it was the result of a mapping
@ @{0-9a-z".=*+} Execute the contents of register {0-9a-z".=*+} [count] times. Note that register '%' (name of the current file) and '#' (name of the alternate file) cannot be used. The register is executed like a mapping, that means that the difference between 'wildchar' and 'wildcharm' applies, and undo might not be synced in the same way. For "@=" you are prompted to enter an expression. The result of the expression is then executed. See also @:.
@@ E748 @@ Repeat the previous @{0-9a-z":*} [count] times.
Q Q Repeat the last recorded register [count] times. See reg_recorded().
:@ :[addr]@{0-9a-z".=*+} Execute the contents of register {0-9a-z".=*+} as an Ex command. First set cursor at line [addr] (default is current line). When the last line in the register does not have a <CR> it will be added automatically when the 'e' flag is present in 'cpoptions'. For ":@=" the last used expression is used. The result of evaluating the expression is executed as an Ex command. Mappings are not recognized in these commands. When the line-continuation character (\) is present at the beginning of a line in a linewise register, then it is combined with the previous line. This is useful for yanking and executing parts of a Vim script.
:@: :[addr]@: Repeat last command-line. First set cursor at line [addr] (default is current line).
:[addr]@ :@@ :[addr]@@ Repeat the previous :@{register}. First set cursor at line [addr] (default is current line).

Using Vim scripts using-scripts

For writing a Vim script, see chapter 41 of the user manual usr_41.txt.
:so :source load-vim-script :[range]so[urce] [file] Runs Ex commands or Lua code (".lua" files) from [file], or current buffer if no [file]. Triggers the SourcePre autocommand. :source! :[range]so[urce]! {file} Runs Normal-mode commands from {file}. When used after :global, :argdo, :windo, :bufdo, in a loop or when another command follows the display won't be updated while executing the commands.
:ru :runtime :ru[ntime][!] [where] {file} .. Sources Ex commands or Lua code (".lua" files) read from {file} (a relative path) in each directory given by 'runtimepath' and/or 'packpath'. Ignores non-existing files.
Example:
:runtime syntax/c.vim
:runtime syntax/c.lua
There can be multiple space-separated {file} arguments. Each {file} is searched for in the first directory from 'runtimepath', then in the second directory, etc.
When [!] is included, all found files are sourced. Else only the first found file is sourced.
When [where] is omitted, first 'runtimepath' is searched, then directories under "start" in 'packpath' are searched. Other values: START search only under "start" in 'packpath' OPT search only under "opt" in 'packpath' PACK search under "start" and "opt" in 'packpath' ALL first use 'runtimepath', then search under "start" and "opt" in 'packpath'
When {file} contains wildcards it is expanded to all matching files. Example:
:runtime! plugin/**/*.vim
This is what Vim uses to load the plugin files when starting up. This similar command:
:runtime plugin/**/*.vim
would source the first file only.
When 'verbose' is one or higher, there is a message when no file could be found. When 'verbose' is two or higher, there is a message about each searched file.
:pa :packadd E919 :pa[ckadd][!] {name} Search for an optional plugin directory in 'packpath' and source any plugin files found. The directory must match:
pack/*/opt/{name}
The directory is added to 'runtimepath' if it wasn't there yet. If the directory pack/*/opt/{name}/after exists it is added at the end of 'runtimepath'.
If loading packages from "pack/*/start" was skipped, then this directory is searched first:
pack/*/start/{name}
Note that {name} is the directory name, not the name of the .vim file. All the files matching the pattern
pack/*/opt/{name}/plugin/**/*.vim
and
pack/*/opt/{name}/plugin/**/*.lua
will be sourced. This allows for using subdirectories below "plugin", just like with plugins in 'runtimepath'.
If the filetype detection was already enabled (this is usually done with a "syntax enable" or "filetype on" command in your init.vim, or automatically during initialization), and the package was found in "pack/*/opt/{name}", this command will also look for "{name}/ftdetect/*.vim" files.
When the optional ! is added no plugin files or ftdetect scripts are loaded, only the matching directories are added to 'runtimepath'. This is useful in your init.vim. The plugins will then be loaded during initialization, see load-plugins (note that the loading order will be reversed, because each directory is inserted before others). In this case, the ftdetect scripts will be loaded during initialization, before the load-plugins step.
Also see pack-add.
:packl :packloadall :packl[oadall][!] Load all packages in the "start" directory under each entry in 'packpath'.
First all the directories found are added to 'runtimepath', then the plugins found in the directories are sourced. This allows for a plugin to depend on something of another plugin, e.g. an "autoload" directory. See packload-two-steps for how this can be useful.
This is normally done automatically during startup, after loading your vimrc file. With this command it can be done earlier.
Packages will be loaded only once. Using :packloadall a second time will have no effect. When the optional ! is added this command will load packages even when done before.
Note that when using :packloadall in the vimrc file, the 'runtimepath' option is updated, and later all plugins in 'runtimepath' will be loaded, which means they are loaded again. Plugins are expected to handle that.
An error only causes sourcing the script where it happens to be aborted, further plugins will be loaded. See packages.
:scripte[ncoding] [encoding] :scripte :scriptencoding E167 Specify the character encoding used in the script. The following lines will be converted from [encoding] to the value of the 'encoding' option, if they are different. Examples:
scriptencoding iso-8859-5
scriptencoding cp932
When [encoding] is empty, no conversion is done. This can be used to restrict conversion to a sequence of lines:
scriptencoding euc-jp
... lines to be converted ...
scriptencoding
... not converted ...
When conversion isn't supported by the system, there is no error message and no conversion is done. When a line can't be converted there is no error and the original line is kept.
Don't use "ucs-2" or "ucs-4", scripts cannot be in these encodings (they would contain NUL bytes). When a sourced script starts with a BOM (Byte Order Mark) in utf-8 format Vim will recognize it, no need to use ":scriptencoding utf-8" then.
:scr :scriptnames :scr[iptnames] List all sourced script names, in the order they were first sourced. The number is used for the script ID <SID>.
:scr[iptnames][!] {scriptId} :script Edit script {scriptId}. Although ":scriptnames name" works, using ":script name" is recommended. When the current buffer can't be abandoned and the ! is not present, the command fails.
:fini :finish E168 :fini[sh] Stop sourcing a script. Can only be used in a Vim script file. This is a quick way to skip the rest of the file. If it is used after a :try but before the matching :finally (if present), the commands following the ":finally" up to the matching :endtry are executed first. This process applies to all nested ":try"s in the script. The outermost ":endtry" then stops sourcing the script.
All commands and command sequences can be repeated by putting them in a named register and then executing it. There are two ways to get the commands in the register:
Use the record command "q". You type the commands once, and while they are being executed they are stored in a register. Easy, because you can see what you are doing. If you make a mistake, "p"ut the register into the file, edit the command sequence, and then delete it into the register again. You can continue recording by appending to the register (use an uppercase letter).
Delete or yank the command sequence into the register.
Often used command sequences can be put under a function key with the ':map' command.
An alternative is to put the commands in a file, and execute them with the ':source!' command. Useful for long command sequences. Can be combined with the ':map' command to put complicated commands under a function key.
The ':source' command reads Ex commands from a file line by line. You will have to type any needed keyboard input. The ':source!' command reads from a script file character by character, interpreting each character as if you typed it.
Example: When you give the ":!ls" command you get the hit-enter prompt. If you ':source' a file with the line "!ls" in it, you will have to type the <Enter> yourself. But if you ':source!' a file with the line ":!ls" in it, the next characters from that file are read until a <CR> is found. You will not have to type <CR> yourself, unless ":!ls" was the last line in the file.
It is possible to put ':source[!]' commands in the script file, so you can make a top-down hierarchy of script files. The ':source' command can be nested as deep as the number of files that can be opened at one time (about 15). The ':source!' command can be nested up to 15 levels deep.
You can use the "<sfile>" string (literally, this is not a special key) inside of the sourced file, in places where a file name is expected. It will be replaced by the file name of the sourced file. For example, if you have a "other.vimrc" file in the same directory as your init.vim file, you can source it from your init.vim file with this command:
:source <sfile>:h/other.vimrc
In script files terminal-dependent key codes are represented by terminal-independent two character codes. This means that they can be used in the same way on different kinds of terminals. The first character of a key code is 0x80 or 128, shown on the screen as "[email protected]". The second one can be found in the list key-notation. Any of these codes can also be entered with CTRL-V followed by the three digit decimal code.
:source_crnl W15 Windows: Files that are read with ":source" normally have <CR><NL> <EOL>s. These always work. If you are using a file with <NL> <EOL>s (for example, a file made on Unix), this will be recognized if 'fileformats' is not empty and the first line does not end in a <CR>. This fails if the first line has something like ":map <F1> :help^M", where "^M" is a <CR>. If the first line ends in a <CR>, but following ones don't, you will get an error message, because the <CR> from the first lines will be lost.
On other systems, Vim expects ":source"ed files to end in a <NL>. These always work. If you are using a file with <CR><NL> <EOL>s (for example, a file made on MS-Windows), all lines will have a trailing <CR>. This may cause problems for some commands (e.g., mappings). There is no automatic <EOL> detection, because it's common to start with a line that defines a mapping that ends in a <CR>, which will confuse the automaton.
line-continuation Long lines in a ":source"d Ex command script file can be split by inserting a line continuation symbol "\" (backslash) at the start of the next line. There can be white space before the backslash, which is ignored.
Example: the lines
:set comments=sr:/*,mb:*,el:*/,
             \://,
             \b:#,
             \:%,
             \n:>,
             \fb:-
are interpreted as if they were given in one line: :set comments=sr:/*,mb:*,el:*/,://,b:#,:%,n:>,fb:-
All leading whitespace characters in the line before a backslash are ignored. Note however that trailing whitespace in the line before it cannot be inserted freely; it depends on the position where a command is split up whether additional whitespace is allowed or not.
When a space is required it's best to put it right after the backslash. A space at the end of a line is hard to see and may be accidentally deleted.
:syn match Comment
        \ "very long regexp"
        \ keepend
There is a problem with the ":append" and ":insert" commands:
:1append
\asdf
.
The backslash is seen as a line-continuation symbol, thus this results in the command:
:1appendasdf
.
To avoid this, add the 'C' flag to the 'cpoptions' option:
:set cpo+=C
:1append
\asdf
.
:set cpo-=C
Note that when the commands are inside a function, you need to add the 'C' flag when defining the function, it is not relevant when executing it.
:set cpo+=C
:function Foo()
:1append
\asdf
.
:endfunction
:set cpo-=C
line-continuation-comment To add a comment in between the lines start with '"\ '. Notice the space after the backslash. Example:
let array = [
        "\ first entry comment
        \ 'first',
        "\ second entry comment
        \ 'second',
        \ ]
Rationale: Most programs work with a trailing backslash to indicate line continuation. Using this in Vim would cause incompatibility with Vi. For example for this Vi mapping:
:map xx  asdf\
Therefore the unusual leading backslash is used.
Starting a comment in a continuation line results in all following continuation lines to be part of the comment. Since it was like this for a long time, when making it possible to add a comment halfway a sequence of continuation lines, it was not possible to use \", since that was a valid continuation line. Using '"\ ' comes closest, even though it may look a bit weird. Requiring the space after the backslash is to make it very unlikely this is a normal comment line.

Using Vim packages packages

A Vim "package" is a directory that contains plugins. Compared to normal plugins, a package can...
be downloaded as an archive and unpacked in its own directory, so the files are not mixed with files of other plugins.
be a git, mercurial, etc. repository, thus easy to update.
contain multiple plugins that depend on each other.
contain plugins that are automatically loaded on startup ("start" packages, located in "pack/*/start/*") and ones that are only loaded when needed with :packadd ("opt" packages, located in "pack/*/opt/*").
runtime-search-path Nvim searches for :runtime files in: 1. all paths in 'runtimepath' 2. all "pack/*/start/*" dirs
Note that the "pack/*/start/*" paths are not explicitly included in 'runtimepath', so they will not be reported by ":set rtp" or "echo &rtp". Scripts can use nvim_list_runtime_paths() to list all used directories, and nvim_get_runtime_file() to query for specific files or sub-folders within the runtime path. Example:
" List all runtime dirs and packages with Lua paths.
:echo nvim_get_runtime_file("lua/", v:true)
Using a package and loading automatically
Let's assume your Nvim files are in "~/.local/share/nvim/site" and you want to add a package from a zip archive "/tmp/foopack.zip": % mkdir -p ~/.local/share/nvim/site/pack/foo % cd ~/.local/share/nvim/site/pack/foo % unzip /tmp/foopack.zip
The directory name "foo" is arbitrary, you can pick anything you like.
You would now have these files under ~/.local/share/nvim/site: pack/foo/README.txt pack/foo/start/foobar/plugin/foo.vim pack/foo/start/foobar/syntax/some.vim pack/foo/opt/foodebug/plugin/debugger.vim
On startup after processing your config, Nvim scans all directories in 'packpath' for plugins in "pack/*/start/*", then loads the plugins.
To allow for calling into package functionality while parsing your vimrc, :colorscheme and autoload will both automatically search under 'packpath' as well in addition to 'runtimepath'. See the documentation for each for details.
In the example Nvim will find "pack/foo/start/foobar/plugin/foo.vim" and load it.
If the "foobar" plugin kicks in and sets the 'filetype' to "some", Nvim will find the syntax/some.vim file, because its directory is in the runtime search path.
Nvim will also load ftdetect files, if there are any.
Note that the files under "pack/foo/opt" are not loaded automatically, only the ones under "pack/foo/start". See pack-add below for how the "opt" directory is used.
Loading packages automatically will not happen if loading plugins is disabled, see load-plugins.
To load packages earlier, so that plugin/ files are sourced: :packloadall This also works when loading plugins is disabled. The automatic loading will only happen once.
If the package has an "after" directory, that directory is added to the end of 'runtimepath', so that anything there will be loaded later.
Using a single plugin and loading it automatically
If you don't have a package but a single plugin, you need to create the extra directory level: % mkdir -p ~/.local/share/nvim/site/pack/foo/start/foobar % cd ~/.local/share/nvim/site/pack/foo/start/foobar % unzip /tmp/someplugin.zip
You would now have these files: pack/foo/start/foobar/plugin/foo.vim pack/foo/start/foobar/syntax/some.vim
From here it works like above.
Optional plugins
pack-add To load an optional plugin from a pack use the :packadd command:
:packadd foodebug
This searches for "pack/*/opt/foodebug" in 'packpath' and will find ~/.local/share/nvim/site/pack/foo/opt/foodebug/plugin/debugger.vim and source it.
This could be done if some conditions are met. For example, depending on whether Nvim supports a feature or a dependency is missing.
You can also load an optional plugin at startup, by putting this command in your config:
:packadd! foodebug
The extra "!" is so that the plugin isn't loaded if Nvim was started with --noplugin.
It is perfectly normal for a package to only have files in the "opt" directory. You then need to load each plugin when you want to use it.
Where to put what
Since color schemes, loaded with :colorscheme, are found below "pack/*/start" and "pack/*/opt", you could put them anywhere. We recommend you put them below "pack/*/opt", for example "~/.config/nvim/pack/mycolors/opt/dark/colors/very_dark.vim".
Filetype plugins should go under "pack/*/start", so that they are always found. Unless you have more than one plugin for a file type and want to select which one to load with :packadd. E.g. depending on the compiler version:
if foo_compiler_version > 34
  packadd foo_new
else
  packadd foo_old
endif
The "after" directory is most likely not useful in a package. It's not disallowed though.

Creating Vim packages package-create

This assumes you write one or more plugins that you distribute as a package.
If you have two unrelated plugins you would use two packages, so that Vim users can choose what they include or not. Or you can decide to use one package with optional plugins, and tell the user to add the preferred ones with :packadd.
Decide how you want to distribute the package. You can create an archive or you could use a repository. An archive can be used by more users, but is a bit harder to update to a new version. A repository can usually be kept up-to-date easily, but it requires a program like "git" to be available. You can do both, github can automatically create an archive for a release.
Your directory layout would be like this: start/foobar/plugin/foo.vim " always loaded, defines commands start/foobar/plugin/bar.vim " always loaded, defines commands start/foobar/autoload/foo.vim " loaded when foo command used start/foobar/doc/foo.txt " help for foo.vim start/foobar/doc/tags " help tags opt/fooextra/plugin/extra.vim " optional plugin, defines commands opt/fooextra/autoload/extra.vim " loaded when extra command used opt/fooextra/doc/extra.txt " help for extra.vim opt/fooextra/doc/tags " help tags
This allows for the user to do:
mkdir ~/.local/share/nvim/site/pack
cd ~/.local/share/nvim/site/pack
git clone https://github.com/you/foobar.git myfoobar
Here "myfoobar" is a name that the user can choose, the only condition is that it differs from other packages.
In your documentation you explain what the plugins do, and tell the user how to load the optional plugin:
:packadd! fooextra
You could add this packadd command in one of your plugins, to be executed when the optional plugin is needed.
Run the :helptags command to generate the doc/tags file. Including this generated file in the package means that the user can drop the package in the pack directory and the help command works right away. Don't forget to re-run the command after changing the plugin help:
:helptags path/start/foobar/doc
:helptags path/opt/fooextra/doc
Dependencies between plugins
packload-two-steps Suppose you have two plugins that depend on the same functionality. You can put the common functionality in an autoload directory, so that it will be found automatically. Your package would have these files:
pack/foo/start/one/plugin/one.vim
call foolib#getit()
pack/foo/start/two/plugin/two.vim
call foolib#getit()
pack/foo/start/lib/autoload/foolib.vim
func foolib#getit()
This works, because start packages will be searched for autoload files, when sourcing the plugins.

Debugging scripts debug-scripts

Besides the obvious messages that you can add to your scripts to find out what they are doing, Vim offers a debug mode. This allows you to step through a sourced file or user function and set breakpoints.
NOTE: The debugging mode is far from perfect. Debugging will have side effects on how Vim works. You cannot use it to debug everything. For example, the display is messed up by the debugging messages.
An alternative to debug mode is setting the 'verbose' option. With a bigger number it will give more verbose messages about what Vim is doing.

STARTING DEBUG MODE debug-mode

To enter debugging mode use one of these methods: 1. Start Vim with the -D argument:
vim -D file.txt
Debugging will start as soon as the first vimrc file is sourced. This is useful to find out what is happening when Vim is starting up. A side effect is that Vim will switch the terminal mode before initialisations have finished, with unpredictable results. For a GUI-only version (Windows) the debugging will start as soon as the GUI window has been opened. To make this happen early, add a ":gui" command in the vimrc file. :debug 2. Run a command with ":debug" prepended. Debugging will only be done while this command executes. Useful for debugging a specific script or user function. And for scripts and functions used by autocommands. Example:
:debug edit test.txt.gz
3. Set a breakpoint in a sourced file or user function. You could do this in the command line:
vim -c "breakadd file */explorer.vim" .
This will run Vim and stop in the first line of the "explorer.vim" script. Breakpoints can also be set while in debugging mode.
In debugging mode every executed command is displayed before it is executed. Comment lines, empty lines and lines that are not executed are skipped. When a line contains two commands, separated by "|", each command will be displayed separately.

DEBUG MODE

Once in debugging mode, the usual Ex commands can be used. For example, to inspect the value of a variable:
echo idx
When inside a user function, this will print the value of the local variable "idx". Prepend "g:" to get the value of a global variable:
echo g:idx
All commands are executed in the context of the current function or script. You can also set options, for example setting or resetting 'verbose' will show what happens, but you might want to set it just before executing the lines you are interested in:
:set verbose=20
Commands that require updating the screen should be avoided, because their effect won't be noticed until after leaving debug mode. For example:
:help
won't be very helpful.
There is a separate command-line history for debug mode.
The line number for a function line is relative to the start of the function. If you have trouble figuring out where you are, edit the file that defines the function in another Vim, search for the start of the function and do "99j". Replace "99" with the line number.
Additionally, these commands can be used: >cont cont Continue execution until the next breakpoint is hit. >quit quit Abort execution. This is like using CTRL-C, some things might still be executed, doesn't abort everything. Still stops at the next breakpoint. >next next Execute the command and come back to debug mode when it's finished. This steps over user function calls and sourced files. >step step Execute the command and come back to debug mode for the next command. This steps into called user functions and sourced files. >interrupt interrupt This is like using CTRL-C, but unlike ">quit" comes back to debug mode for the next command that is executed. Useful for testing :finally and :catch on interrupt exceptions. >finish finish Finish the current script or user function and come back to debug mode for the command after the one that sourced or called it. >bt >backtrace >where backtrace Show the call stacktrace for current debugging session. bt where >frame frame N Goes to N backtrace level. + and - signs make movement relative. E.g., ":frame +3" goes three frames up. >up up Goes one level up from call stacktrace. >down down Goes one level down from call stacktrace.
About the additional commands in debug mode:
There is no command-line completion for them, you get the completion for the normal Ex commands only.
You can shorten them, up to a single character, unless more than one command starts with the same letter. "f" stands for "finish", use "fr" for "frame".
Hitting <CR> will repeat the previous one. When doing another command, this is reset (because it's not clear what you want to repeat).
When you want to use the Ex command with the same name, prepend a colon: ":cont", ":next", ":finish" (or shorter).
The backtrace shows the hierarchy of function calls, e.g.:
>bt
3 function One[3]
2 Two[3]
->1 Three[3]
0 Four
line 1: let four = 4
The "->" points to the current frame. Use "up", "down" and "frame N" to select another frame.
In the current frame you can evaluate the local function variables. There is no way to see the command at the current line yet.

DEFINING BREAKPOINTS

:breaka :breakadd :breaka[dd] func [lnum] {name} Set a breakpoint in a function. Example:
:breakadd func Explore
Doesn't check for a valid function name, thus the breakpoint can be set before the function is defined.
:breaka[dd] file [lnum] {name} Set a breakpoint in a sourced file. Example:
:breakadd file 43 init.vim
:breaka[dd] here Set a breakpoint in the current line of the current file. Like doing:
:breakadd file <cursor-line> <current-file>
Note that this only works for commands that are executed when sourcing the file, not for a function defined in that file.
:breaka[dd] expr {expression} Sets a breakpoint, that will break whenever the {expression} evaluates to a different value. Example:
:breakadd expr g:lnum
Will break, whenever the global variable lnum changes.
Errors in evaluation are suppressed, you can use the name of a variable that does not exist yet. This also means you will not notice anything if the expression has a mistake.
Note if you watch a script-variable this will break when switching scripts, since the script variable is only valid in the script where it has been defined and if that script is called from several other scripts, this will stop whenever that particular variable will become visible or inaccessible again.
The [lnum] is the line number of the breakpoint. Vim will stop at or after this line. When omitted line 1 is used.
:debug-name {name} is a pattern that is matched with the file or function name. The pattern is like what is used for autocommands. There must be a full match (as if the pattern starts with "^" and ends in "$"). A "*" matches any sequence of characters. 'ignorecase' is not used, but "\c" can be used in the pattern to ignore case /\c. Don't include the () for the function name!
The match for sourced scripts is done against the full file name. If no path is specified the current directory is used. Examples:
breakadd file explorer.vim
matches "explorer.vim" in the current directory.
breakadd file *explorer.vim
matches ".../plugin/explorer.vim", ".../plugin/iexplorer.vim", etc.
breakadd file */explorer.vim
matches ".../plugin/explorer.vim" and "explorer.vim" in any other directory.
The match for functions is done against the name as it's shown in the output of ":function". For local functions this means that something like "<SNR>99_" is prepended.
Note that functions are first loaded and later executed. When they are loaded the "file" breakpoints are checked, when they are executed the "func" breakpoints.

DELETING BREAKPOINTS

:breakd :breakdel E161 :breakd[el] {nr} Delete breakpoint {nr}. Use :breaklist to see the number of each breakpoint.
:breakd[el] * Delete all breakpoints.
:breakd[el] func [lnum] {name} Delete a breakpoint in a function.
:breakd[el] file [lnum] {name} Delete a breakpoint in a sourced file.
:breakd[el] here Delete a breakpoint at the current line of the current file.
When [lnum] is omitted, the first breakpoint in the function or file is deleted. The {name} must be exactly the same as what was typed for the ":breakadd" command. "explorer", "*explorer.vim" and "*explorer*" are different.

LISTING BREAKPOINTS

:breakl :breaklist :breakl[ist] List all breakpoints.

OBSCURE

:debugg :debuggreedy :debugg[reedy] Read debug mode commands from the normal input stream, instead of getting them directly from the user. Only useful for test scripts. Example:
echo 'q^Mq' | vim -e -s -c debuggreedy -c 'breakadd file script.vim' -S script.vim
:0debugg[reedy] Undo ":debuggreedy": get debug mode commands directly from the user, don't use typeahead for debug commands.

Profiling profile profiling

Profiling means that Vim measures the time that is spent on executing functions and/or scripts.
You can also use the reltime() function to measure time.
For profiling syntax highlighting see :syntime.
For example, to profile the one_script.vim script file:
:profile start /tmp/one_script_profile
:profile file one_script.vim
:source one_script.vim
:exit
:prof[ile] start {fname} :prof :profile E750 Start profiling, write the output in {fname} upon exit. "~/" and environment variables in {fname} will be expanded. If {fname} already exists it will be silently overwritten. The variable v:profiling is set to one.
:prof[ile] stop Write the logfile and stop profiling.
:prof[ile] pause Don't profile until the following ":profile continue". Can be used when doing something that should not be counted (e.g., an external command). Does not nest.
:prof[ile] continue Continue profiling after ":profile pause".
:prof[ile] func {pattern} Profile function that matches the pattern {pattern}. See :debug-name for how {pattern} is used.
:prof[ile][!] file {pattern} Profile script file that matches the pattern {pattern}. See :debug-name for how {pattern} is used. This only profiles the script itself, not the functions defined in it. When the [!] is added then all functions defined in the script will also be profiled. Note that profiling only starts when the script is loaded after this command. A :profile command in the script itself won't work.
:prof[ile] dump Don't wait until exiting Vim and write the current state of profiling to the log immediately.
:profd[el] ... :profd :profdel Stop profiling for the arguments specified. See :breakdel for the arguments.
You must always start with a ":profile start fname" command. The resulting file is written when Vim exits. Here is an example of the output, with line numbers prepended for the explanation:
1 FUNCTION Test2()
2 Called 1 time
3 Total time: 0.155251
4 Self time: 0.002006
5
6 count total (s) self (s)
7 9 0.000096 for i in range(8)
8 8 0.153655 0.000410 call Test3()
9 8 0.000070 endfor
10 " Ask a question
11 1 0.001341 echo input("give me an answer: ")
The header (lines 1-4) gives the time for the whole function. The "Total" time is the time passed while the function was executing. The "Self" time is the "Total" time reduced by time spent in:
other user defined functions
sourced scripts
executed autocommands
external (shell) commands
Lines 7-11 show the time spent in each executed line. Lines that are not executed do not count. Thus a comment line is never counted.
The Count column shows how many times a line was executed. Note that the "for" command in line 7 is executed one more time as the following lines. That is because the line is also executed to detect the end of the loop.
The time Vim spends waiting for user input isn't counted at all. Thus how long you take to respond to the input() prompt is irrelevant.
Profiling should give a good indication of where time is spent, but keep in mind there are various things that may clobber the results:
Real elapsed time is measured, if other processes are busy they may cause delays at unpredictable moments. You may want to run the profiling several times and use the lowest results.
If you have several commands in one line you only get one time. Split the line to see the time for the individual commands.
The time of the lines added up is mostly less than the time of the whole function. There is some overhead in between.
Functions that are deleted before Vim exits will not produce profiling information. You can check the v:profiling variable if needed:
:if !v:profiling
:   delfunc MyFunc
:endif
Profiling may give weird results on multi-processor systems, when sleep mode kicks in or the processor frequency is reduced to save power.
The "self" time is wrong when a function is used recursively.

Context Context context

The editor state is represented by the Context concept. This includes things like the current jumplist, values of registers, and more, described below.
context-types The following Context items are supported: "jumps" jumplist "regs" registers "bufs" buffer-list "gvars" global-variables "sfuncs" script-local functions "funcs" global and script-local functions
context-dict Context objects are dictionaries with the following key-value pairs:
"jumps", "regs", "bufs", "gvars": readfile()-style List representation of corresponding msgpack objects (see msgpackdump() and msgpackparse()).
"funcs" (includes script-local functions as well): List of :function definitions.
context-stack An initially-empty internal Context stack is maintained by the ctx-family functions (see ctx-functions).
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