Nvim :help pages, generated from source using the tree-sitter-vimdoc parser.

------------------------------------------------ NETRW REFERENCE MANUAL by Charles E. Campbell ------------------------------------------------ Author: Charles E. Campbell <[email protected]> (remove NOSPAM from Campbell's email first)
Copyright: Copyright (C) 2017 Charles E Campbell The VIM LICENSE applies to the files in this package, including netrw.vim, pi_netrw.txt, netrwFileHandlers.vim, netrwSettings.vim, and syntax/netrw.vim. Like anything else that's free, netrw.vim and its associated files are provided *as is* and comes with no warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. No guarantees of merchantability. No guarantees of suitability for any purpose. By using this plugin, you agree that in no event will the copyright holder be liable for any damages resulting from the use of this software. Use at your own risk!
1. Contents..............................................|netrw-contents| 2. Starting With Netrw...................................|netrw-start| 3. Netrw Reference.......................................|netrw-ref| EXTERNAL APPLICATIONS AND PROTOCOLS.................|netrw-externapp| READING.............................................|netrw-read| WRITING.............................................|netrw-write| SOURCING............................................|netrw-source| DIRECTORY LISTING...................................|netrw-dirlist| CHANGING THE USERID AND PASSWORD....................|netrw-chgup| VARIABLES AND SETTINGS..............................|netrw-variables| PATHS...............................................|netrw-path| 4. Network-Oriented File Transfer........................|netrw-xfer| NETRC...............................................|netrw-netrc| PASSWORD............................................|netrw-passwd| 5. Activation............................................|netrw-activate| 6. Transparent Remote File Editing.......................|netrw-transparent| 7. Ex Commands...........................................|netrw-ex| 8. Variables and Options.................................|netrw-variables| 9. Browsing..............................................|netrw-browse| Introduction To Browsing............................|netrw-intro-browse| Quick Reference: Maps...............................|netrw-browse-maps| Quick Reference: Commands...........................|netrw-browse-cmds| Banner Display......................................|netrw-I| Bookmarking A Directory.............................|netrw-mb| Browsing............................................|netrw-cr| Squeezing the Current Tree-Listing Directory........|netrw-s-cr| Browsing With A Horizontally Split Window...........|netrw-o| Browsing With A New Tab.............................|netrw-t| Browsing With A Vertically Split Window.............|netrw-v| Change File Permission..............................|netrw-gp| Change Listing Style.(thin wide long tree)..........|netrw-i| Changing To A Bookmarked Directory..................|netrw-gb| Changing To A Predecessor Directory.................|netrw-u| Changing To A Successor Directory...................|netrw-U| Customizing Browsing With A Special Handler.........|netrw-x| Deleting Bookmarks..................................|netrw-mB| Deleting Files Or Directories.......................|netrw-D| Directory Exploring Commands........................|netrw-explore| Exploring With Stars and Patterns...................|netrw-star| Displaying Information About File...................|netrw-qf| Edit File Or Directory Hiding List..................|netrw-ctrl-h| Editing The Sorting Sequence........................|netrw-S| Forcing treatment as a file or directory............|netrw-gd| netrw-gf Going Up............................................|netrw--| Hiding Files Or Directories.........................|netrw-a| Improving Browsing..................................|netrw-ssh-hack| Listing Bookmarks And History.......................|netrw-qb| Making A New Directory..............................|netrw-d| Making The Browsing Directory The Current Directory.|netrw-cd| Marking Files.......................................|netrw-mf| Unmarking Files.....................................|netrw-mF| Marking Files By Location List......................|netrw-qL| Marking Files By QuickFix List......................|netrw-qF| Marking Files By Regular Expression.................|netrw-mr| Marked Files: Arbitrary Shell Command...............|netrw-mx| Marked Files: Arbitrary Shell Command, En Bloc......|netrw-mX| Marked Files: Arbitrary Vim Command.................|netrw-mv| Marked Files: Argument List.........................|netrw-ma| netrw-mA Marked Files: Buffer List...........................|netrw-cb| netrw-cB Marked Files: Compression And Decompression.........|netrw-mz| Marked Files: Copying...............................|netrw-mc| Marked Files: Diff..................................|netrw-md| Marked Files: Editing...............................|netrw-me| Marked Files: Grep..................................|netrw-mg| Marked Files: Hiding and Unhiding by Suffix.........|netrw-mh| Marked Files: Moving................................|netrw-mm| Marked Files: Sourcing..............................|netrw-ms| Marked Files: Setting the Target Directory..........|netrw-mt| Marked Files: Tagging...............................|netrw-mT| Marked Files: Target Directory Using Bookmarks......|netrw-Tb| Marked Files: Target Directory Using History........|netrw-Th| Marked Files: Unmarking.............................|netrw-mu| Netrw Browser Variables.............................|netrw-browser-var| Netrw Browsing And Option Incompatibilities.........|netrw-incompatible| Netrw Settings Window...............................|netrw-settings-window| Obtaining A File....................................|netrw-O| Preview Window......................................|netrw-p| Previous Window.....................................|netrw-P| Refreshing The Listing..............................|netrw-ctrl-l| Reversing Sorting Order.............................|netrw-r| Renaming Files Or Directories.......................|netrw-R| Selecting Sorting Style.............................|netrw-s| Setting Editing Window..............................|netrw-C| 10. Problems and Fixes....................................|netrw-problems| 11. Debugging Netrw Itself................................|netrw-debug| 12. History...............................................|netrw-history| 13. Todo..................................................|netrw-todo| 14. Credits...............................................|netrw-credits|
Netrw makes reading files, writing files, browsing over a network, and local browsing easy! First, make sure that you have plugins enabled, so you'll need to have at least the following in your <.vimrc>: (or see netrw-activate)
set nocp                    " 'compatible' is not set
filetype plugin on          " plugins are enabled
Netrw supports "transparent" editing of files on other machines using urls (see netrw-transparent). As an example of this, let's assume you have an account on some other machine; if you can use scp, try:
vim scp://hostname/path/to/file
Want to make ssh/scp easier to use? Check out netrw-ssh-hack!
So, what if you have ftp, not ssh/scp? That's easy, too; try
vim ftp://hostname/path/to/file
Want to make ftp simpler to use? See if your ftp supports a file called
.netrc> -- typically it goes in your home directory, has read/write permissions for only the user to read (ie. not group, world, other, etc), and has lines resembling
machine HOSTNAME login USERID password "PASSWORD"
machine HOSTNAME login USERID password "PASSWORD"
default          login USERID password "PASSWORD"
Windows' ftp doesn't support .netrc; however, one may have in one's .vimrc:
let g:netrw_ftp_cmd= 'c:\Windows\System32\ftp -s:C:\Users\MyUserName\MACHINE'
Netrw will substitute the host's machine name for "MACHINE" from the URL it is attempting to open, and so one may specify
for each site in a separate file: c:\Users\MyUserName\MachineName.
Now about browsing -- when you just want to look around before editing a file. For browsing on your current host, just "edit" a directory:
vim .
vim /home/userid/path
For browsing on a remote host, "edit" a directory (but make sure that the directory name is followed by a "/"):
vim scp://hostname/
vim ftp://hostname/path/to/dir/
See netrw-browse for more!
There are more protocols supported by netrw than just scp and ftp, too: see the next section, netrw-externapp, on how to use these external applications with netrw and vim.
If you want to use plugins, but for some reason don't wish to use netrw, then you need to avoid loading both the plugin and the autoload portions of netrw. You may do so by placing the following two lines in your <.vimrc>:
:let g:loaded_netrw       = 1
:let g:loaded_netrwPlugin = 1
Netrw supports several protocols in addition to scp and ftp as mentioned in netrw-start. These include dav, fetch, http,... well, just look at the list in netrw-externapp. Each protocol is associated with a variable which holds the default command supporting that protocol.
Protocol Variable Default Value -------- ---------------- ------------- dav: g:netrw_dav_cmd = "cadaver" if cadaver is executable dav: g:netrw_dav_cmd = "curl -o" elseif curl is available fetch: g:netrw_fetch_cmd = "fetch -o" if fetch is available ftp: g:netrw_ftp_cmd = "ftp" http: g:netrw_http_cmd = "elinks" if elinks is available http: g:netrw_http_cmd = "links" elseif links is available http: g:netrw_http_cmd = "curl" elseif curl is available http: g:netrw_http_cmd = "wget" elseif wget is available http: g:netrw_http_cmd = "fetch" elseif fetch is available http: g:netrw_http_put_cmd = "curl -T" rcp: g:netrw_rcp_cmd = "rcp" rsync: g:netrw_rsync_cmd = "rsync" (see g:netrw_rsync_sep) scp: g:netrw_scp_cmd = "scp -q" sftp: g:netrw_sftp_cmd = "sftp" file: g:netrw_file_cmd = "elinks" or "links"
g:netrw_http_xcmd : the option string for http://... protocols are specified via this variable and may be independently overridden. By default, the option arguments for the http-handling commands are:
elinks : "-source >"
links  : "-dump >"
curl   : "-L -o"
wget   : "-q -O"
fetch  : "-o"
For example, if your system has elinks, and you'd rather see the page using an attempt at rendering the text, you may wish to have
let g:netrw_http_xcmd= "-dump >"
in your .vimrc.
g:netrw_http_put_cmd: this option specifies both the executable and any needed options. This command does a PUT operation to the url.
Generally, one may just use the URL notation with a normal editing command, such as
:e ftp://[user@]machine/path
Netrw also provides the Nread command:
:Nread ? give help :Nread "machine:path" uses rcp :Nread "machine path" uses ftp w/ <.netrc> :Nread "machine id password path" uses ftp :Nread "dav://machine[:port]/path" uses cadaver :Nread "fetch://[user@]machine/path" uses fetch :Nread "ftp://[user@]machine[[:#]port]/path" uses ftp w/ <.netrc> :Nread "http://[user@]machine/path" uses http uses wget :Nread "rcp://[user@]machine/path" uses rcp :Nread "rsync://[user@]machine[:port]/path" uses rsync :Nread "scp://[user@]machine[[:#]port]/path" uses scp :Nread "sftp://[user@]machine/path" uses sftp
One may just use the URL notation with a normal file writing command, such as
:w ftp://[user@]machine/path
Netrw also provides the Nwrite command:
:Nwrite ? give help :Nwrite "machine:path" uses rcp :Nwrite "machine path" uses ftp w/ <.netrc> :Nwrite "machine id password path" uses ftp :Nwrite "dav://machine[:port]/path" uses cadaver :Nwrite "ftp://[user@]machine[[:#]port]/path" uses ftp w/ <.netrc> :Nwrite "rcp://[user@]machine/path" uses rcp :Nwrite "rsync://[user@]machine[:port]/path" uses rsync :Nwrite "scp://[user@]machine[[:#]port]/path" uses scp :Nwrite "sftp://[user@]machine/path" uses sftp http: not supported!
One may just use the URL notation with the normal file sourcing command, such as
:so ftp://[user@]machine/path
Netrw also provides the Nsource command:
:Nsource ? give help :Nsource "dav://machine[:port]/path" uses cadaver :Nsource "fetch://[user@]machine/path" uses fetch :Nsource "ftp://[user@]machine[[:#]port]/path" uses ftp w/ <.netrc> :Nsource "http://[user@]machine/path" uses http uses wget :Nsource "rcp://[user@]machine/path" uses rcp :Nsource "rsync://[user@]machine[:port]/path" uses rsync :Nsource "scp://[user@]machine[[:#]port]/path" uses scp :Nsource "sftp://[user@]machine/path" uses sftp
One may browse a directory to get a listing by simply attempting to edit the directory:
:e scp://[user]@hostname/path/
:e ftp://[user]@hostname/path/
For remote directory listings (ie. those using scp or ftp), that trailing "/" is necessary (the slash tells netrw to treat the argument as a directory to browse instead of as a file to download).
The Nread command may also be used to accomplish this (again, that trailing slash is necessary):
:Nread [protocol]://[user]@hostname/path/
Attempts to use ftp will prompt you for a user-id and a password. These will be saved in global variables g:netrw_uid and s:netrw_passwd; subsequent use of ftp will re-use those two strings, thereby simplifying use of ftp. However, if you need to use a different user id and/or password, you'll want to call NetUserPass() first. To work around the need to enter passwords, check if your ftp supports a <.netrc> file in your home directory. Also see netrw-passwd (and if you're using ssh/scp hoping to figure out how to not need to use passwords for scp, look at netrw-ssh-hack).
:NetUserPass [uid [password]] -- prompts as needed :call NetUserPass() -- prompts for uid and password :call NetUserPass("uid") -- prompts for password :call NetUserPass("uid","password") -- sets global uid and password
(Related topics: ftp netrw-userpass netrw-start)


(Also see: netrw-browser-var : netrw browser option variables netrw-protocol : file transfer protocol option variables netrw-settings : additional file transfer options netrw-browser-options : these options affect browsing directories )
Netrw provides a lot of variables which allow you to customize netrw to your preferences. One way to look at them is via the command :NetrwSettings (see netrw-settings) which will display your current netrw settings. Most such settings are described below, in netrw-browser-options, and in netrw-externapp:
b:netrw_lastfile last file Network-read/written retained on a per-buffer basis (supports plain :Nw )
g:netrw_bufsettings the settings that netrw buffers have (default) noma nomod nonu nowrap ro nobl
g:netrw_chgwin specifies a window number where subsequent file edits will take place. (also see netrw-C) (default) -1
g:Netrw_funcref specifies a function (or functions) to be called when netrw edits a file. The file is first edited, and then the function reference (Funcref) is called. This variable may also hold a List of Funcrefs. (default) not defined. (the capital in g:Netrw... is required by its holding a function reference)
Example: place in .vimrc; affects all file opening
fun! MyFuncRef()
let g:Netrw_funcref= function("MyFuncRef")
g:Netrw_UserMaps specifies a function or List of functions which can be used to set up user-specified maps and functionality. See netrw-usermaps
g:netrw_ftp if it doesn't exist, use default ftp =0 use default ftp (uid password) =1 use alternate ftp method (user uid password) If you're having trouble with ftp, try changing the value of this variable to see if the alternate ftp method works for your setup.
g:netrw_ftp_options Chosen by default, these options are supposed to turn interactive prompting off and to restrain ftp from attempting auto-login upon initial connection. However, it appears that not all ftp implementations support this (ex. ncftp). ="-i -n"
g:netrw_ftpextracmd default: doesn't exist If this variable exists, then any string it contains will be placed into the commands set to your ftp client. As an example: ="passive"
g:netrw_ftpmode ="binary" (default) ="ascii"
g:netrw_ignorenetrc =0 (default for linux, cygwin) =1 If you have a <.netrc> file but it doesn't work and you want it ignored, then set this variable as shown. (default for Windows + cmd.exe)
g:netrw_menu =0 disable netrw's menu =1 (default) netrw's menu enabled
g:netrw_nogx if this variable exists, then the "gx" map will not be available (see netrw-gx)
g:netrw_uid (ftp) user-id, retained on a per-vim-session basis s:netrw_passwd (ftp) password, retained on a per-vim-session basis
g:netrw_preview =0 (default) preview window shown in a horizontally split window =1 preview window shown in a vertically split window. Also affects the "previous window" (see netrw-P) in the same way. The g:netrw_alto variable may be used to provide additional splitting control: g:netrw_preview g:netrw_alto result 0 0 :aboveleft 0 1 :belowright 1 0 :topleft 1 1 :botright To control sizing, see g:netrw_winsize
g:netrw_scpport = "-P" : option to use to set port for scp g:netrw_sshport = "-p" : option to use to set port for ssh
g:netrw_sepchr =\0xff =\0x01 for enc == euc-jp (and perhaps it should be for others, too, please let me know) Separates priority codes from filenames internally. See netrw-p12.
g:netrw_silent =0 : transfers done normally =1 : transfers done silently
g:netrw_use_errorwindow =2: messages from netrw will use a popup window Move the mouse and pause to remove the popup window. =1 : messages from netrw will use a separate one line window. This window provides reliable delivery of messages. =0 : (default) messages from netrw will use echoerr ; messages don't always seem to show up this way, but one doesn't have to quit the window.
g:netrw_cygwin =1 assume scp under windows is from cygwin. Also permits network browsing to use ls with time and size sorting (default if windows) =0 assume Windows' scp accepts windows-style paths Network browsing uses dir instead of ls This option is ignored if you're using unix
g:netrw_use_nt_rcp =0 don't use the rcp of WinNT, Win2000 and WinXP =1 use WinNT's rcp in binary mode (default)
Paths to files are generally user-directory relative for most protocols. It is possible that some protocol will make paths relative to some associated directory, however.
example:  vim scp://user@host/somefile
example:  vim scp://user@host/subdir1/subdir2/somefile
where "somefile" is in the "user"'s home directory. If you wish to get a file using root-relative paths, use the full path:
example:  vim scp://user@host//somefile
example:  vim scp://user@host//subdir1/subdir2/somefile
Network-oriented file transfer under Vim is implemented by a vim script (<netrw.vim>) using plugin techniques. It currently supports both reading and writing across networks using rcp, scp, ftp or ftp+<.netrc>, scp, fetch, dav/cadaver, rsync, or sftp.
http is currently supported read-only via use of wget or fetch.
<netrw.vim> is a standard plugin which acts as glue between Vim and the various file transfer programs. It uses autocommand events (BufReadCmd, FileReadCmd, BufWriteCmd) to intercept reads/writes with url-like filenames.
ex. vim ftp://hostname/path/to/file
The characters preceding the colon specify the protocol to use; in the example, it's ftp. The <netrw.vim> script then formulates a command or a series of commands (typically ftp) which it issues to an external program (ftp, scp, etc) which does the actual file transfer/protocol. Files are read from/written to a temporary file (under Unix/Linux, /tmp/...) which the <netrw.vim> script will clean up.
Now, a word about Jan Minář's "FTP User Name and Password Disclosure"; first, ftp is not a secure protocol. User names and passwords are transmitted "in the clear" over the internet; any snooper tool can pick these up; this is not a netrw thing, this is a ftp thing. If you're concerned about this, please try to use scp or sftp instead.
Netrw re-uses the user id and password during the same vim session and so long as the remote hostname remains the same.
Jan seems to be a bit confused about how netrw handles ftp; normally multiple commands are performed in a "ftp session", and he seems to feel that the uid/password should only be retained over one ftp session. However, netrw does every ftp operation in a separate "ftp session"; so remembering the uid/password for just one "ftp session" would be the same as not remembering the uid/password at all. IMHO this would rapidly grow tiresome as one browsed remote directories, for example.
On the other hand, thanks go to Jan M. for pointing out the many vulnerabilities that netrw (and vim itself) had had in handling "crafted" filenames. The shellescape() and fnameescape() functions were written in response by Bram Moolenaar to handle these sort of problems, and netrw has been modified to use them. Still, my advice is, if the "filename" looks like a vim command that you aren't comfortable with having executed, don't open it.
netrw-putty netrw-pscp netrw-psftp One may modify any protocol's implementing external application by setting a variable (ex. scp uses the variable g:netrw_scp_cmd, which is defaulted to "scp -q"). As an example, consider using PuTTY:
let g:netrw_scp_cmd = '"c:\Program Files\PuTTY\pscp.exe" -q -batch'
let g:netrw_sftp_cmd= '"c:\Program Files\PuTTY\psftp.exe"'
(note: it has been reported that windows 7 with putty v0.6's "-batch" option doesn't work, so its best to leave it off for that system)
See netrw-p8 for more about putty, pscp, psftp, etc.
Ftp, an old protocol, seems to be blessed by numerous implementations. Unfortunately, some implementations are noisy (ie., add junk to the end of the file). Thus, concerned users may decide to write a NetReadFixup() function that will clean up after reading with their ftp. Some Unix systems (ie., FreeBSD) provide a utility called "fetch" which uses the ftp protocol but is not noisy and more convenient, actually, for <netrw.vim> to use. Consequently, if "fetch" is available (ie. executable), it may be preferable to use it for ftp://... based transfers.
For rcp, scp, sftp, and http, one may use network-oriented file transfers transparently; ie.
vim rcp://[user@]machine/path
vim scp://[user@]machine/path
If your ftp supports <.netrc>, then it too can be transparently used if the needed triad of machine name, user id, and password are present in that file. Your ftp must be able to use the <.netrc> file on its own, however.
vim ftp://[user@]machine[[:#]portnumber]/path
Windows provides an ftp (typically c:\Windows\System32\ftp.exe) which uses an option, -s:filename (filename can and probably should be a full path) which contains ftp commands which will be automatically run whenever ftp starts. You may use this feature to enter a user and password for one site:
netrw-windows-netrc netrw-windows-s If g:netrw_ftp_cmd contains -s:[path/]MACHINE, then (on Windows machines only) netrw will substitute the current machine name requested for ftp connections for MACHINE. Hence one can have multiple machine.ftp files containing login and password for ftp. Example:
let g:netrw_ftp_cmd= 'c:\Windows\System32\ftp -s:C:\Users\Myself\MACHINE'
vim ftp://myhost.somewhere.net/
will use a file
Often, ftp will need to query the user for the userid and password. The latter will be done "silently"; ie. asterisks will show up instead of the actually-typed-in password. Netrw will retain the userid and password for subsequent read/writes from the most recent transfer so subsequent transfers (read/write) to or from that machine will take place without additional prompting.
netrw-urls +=================================+============================+============+ | Reading | Writing | Uses | +=================================+============================+============+ | DAV: | | | | dav://host/path | | cadaver | | :Nread dav://host/path | :Nwrite dav://host/path | cadaver | +---------------------------------+----------------------------+------------+ | DAV + SSL: | | | | davs://host/path | | cadaver | | :Nread davs://host/path | :Nwrite davs://host/path | cadaver | +---------------------------------+----------------------------+------------+ | FETCH: | | | | fetch://[user@]host/path | | | | fetch://[user@]host:http/path | Not Available | fetch | | :Nread fetch://[user@]host/path| | | +---------------------------------+----------------------------+------------+ | FILE: | | | | file:///* | file:///* | | | file://localhost/* | file://localhost/* | | +---------------------------------+----------------------------+------------+ | FTP: (*3) | (*3) | | | ftp://[user@]host/path | ftp://[user@]host/path | ftp (*2) | | :Nread ftp://host/path | :Nwrite ftp://host/path | ftp+.netrc | | :Nread host path | :Nwrite host path | ftp+.netrc | | :Nread host uid pass path | :Nwrite host uid pass path | ftp | +---------------------------------+----------------------------+------------+ | HTTP: wget is executable: (*4) | | | | http://[user@]host/path | Not Available | wget | +---------------------------------+----------------------------+------------+ | HTTP: fetch is executable (*4) | | | | http://[user@]host/path | Not Available | fetch | +---------------------------------+----------------------------+------------+ | RCP: | | | | rcp://[user@]host/path | rcp://[user@]host/path | rcp | +---------------------------------+----------------------------+------------+ | RSYNC: | | | | rsync://[user@]host/path | rsync://[user@]host/path | rsync | | :Nread rsync://host/path | :Nwrite rsync://host/path | rsync | | :Nread rcp://host/path | :Nwrite rcp://host/path | rcp | +---------------------------------+----------------------------+------------+ | SCP: | | | | scp://[user@]host/path | scp://[user@]host/path | scp | | :Nread scp://host/path | :Nwrite scp://host/path | scp (*1) | +---------------------------------+----------------------------+------------+ | SFTP: | | | | sftp://[user@]host/path | sftp://[user@]host/path | sftp | | :Nread sftp://host/path | :Nwrite sftp://host/path | sftp (*1) | +=================================+============================+============+
(*1) For an absolute path use scp://machine//path.
(*2) if <.netrc> is present, it is assumed that it will work with your ftp client. Otherwise the script will prompt for user-id and password.
(*3) for ftp, "machine" may be machine#port or machine:port if a different port is needed than the standard ftp port
(*4) for http:..., if wget is available it will be used. Otherwise, if fetch is available it will be used.
Both the :Nread and the :Nwrite ex-commands can accept multiple filenames.
The <.netrc> file, typically located in your home directory, contains lines therein which map a hostname (machine name) to the user id and password you prefer to use with it.
The typical syntax for lines in a <.netrc> file is given as shown below. Ftp under Unix usually supports <.netrc>; ftp under Windows usually doesn't.
machine {full machine name} login {user-id} password "{password}"
default login {user-id} password "{password}"
Your ftp client must handle the use of <.netrc> on its own, but if the
.netrc> file exists, an ftp transfer will not ask for the user-id or password.
Note: Since this file contains passwords, make very sure nobody else can read this file! Most programs will refuse to use a .netrc that is readable for others. Don't forget that the system administrator can still read the file! Ie. for Linux/Unix: chmod 600 .netrc
Even though Windows' ftp clients typically do not support .netrc, netrw has a work-around: see netrw-windows-s.
The script attempts to get passwords for ftp invisibly using inputsecret(), a built-in Vim function. See netrw-userpass for how to change the password after one has set it.
Unfortunately there doesn't appear to be a way for netrw to feed a password to scp. Thus every transfer via scp will require re-entry of the password. However, netrw-ssh-hack can help with this problem.
Network-oriented file transfers are available by default whenever Vim's 'nocompatible' mode is enabled. Netrw's script files reside in your system's plugin, autoload, and syntax directories; just the plugin/netrwPlugin.vim script is sourced automatically whenever you bring up vim. The main script in autoload/netrw.vim is only loaded when you actually use netrw. I suggest that, at a minimum, you have at least the following in your <.vimrc> customization file:
set nocp
if version >= 600
  filetype plugin indent on
By also including the following lines in your .vimrc, one may have netrw immediately activate when using [g]vim without any filenames, showing the current directory:
" Augroup VimStartup:
augroup VimStartup
  au VimEnter * if expand("%") == "" | e . | endif
augroup END
Transparent file transfers occur whenever a regular file read or write (invoked via an :autocmd for BufReadCmd, BufWriteCmd, or SourceCmd events) is made. Thus one may read, write, or source files across networks just as easily as if they were local files!
vim ftp://[user@]machine/path
See netrw-activate for more on how to encourage your vim to use plugins such as netrw.
For password-free use of scp:, see netrw-ssh-hack.
The usual read/write commands are supported. There are also a few additional commands available. Often you won't need to use Nwrite or Nread as shown in netrw-transparent (ie. simply use
:e URL
:r URL
:w URL
instead, as appropriate) -- see netrw-urls. In the explanations below, a {netfile} is a URL to a remote file.
:Nwrite :Nw :[range]Nw[rite] Write the specified lines to the current file as specified in b:netrw_lastfile. (related: netrw-nwrite)
:[range]Nw[rite] {netfile} [{netfile}]... Write the specified lines to the {netfile}.
:Nread :Nr :Nr[ead] Read the lines from the file specified in b:netrw_lastfile into the current buffer. (related: netrw-nread)
:Nr[ead] {netfile} {netfile}... Read the {netfile} after the current line.
:Nsource :Ns :Ns[ource] {netfile} Source the {netfile}. To start up vim using a remote .vimrc, one may use the following (all on one line) (tnx to Antoine Mechelynck)
vim -u NORC -N
 --cmd "runtime plugin/netrwPlugin.vim"
 --cmd "source scp://HOSTNAME/.vimrc"
(related: netrw-source)
:call NetUserPass() NetUserPass() If g:netrw_uid and s:netrw_passwd don't exist, this function will query the user for them. (related: netrw-userpass)
:call NetUserPass("userid") This call will set the g:netrw_uid and, if the password doesn't exist, will query the user for it. (related: netrw-userpass)
:call NetUserPass("userid","passwd") This call will set both the g:netrw_uid and s:netrw_passwd. The user-id and password are used by ftp transfers. One may effectively remove the user-id and password by using empty strings (ie. ""). (related: netrw-userpass)
:NetrwSettings This command is described in netrw-settings -- used to display netrw settings and change netrw behavior.
The <netrw.vim> script provides several variables which act as options to affect <netrw.vim>'s file transfer behavior. These variables typically may be set in the user's <.vimrc> file: (see also netrw-settings netrw-protocol) netrw-options
                Netrw Options
Option                        Meaning
--------------                -----------------------------------------------
b:netrw_col Holds current cursor position (during NetWrite) g:netrw_cygwin =1 assume scp under windows is from cygwin (default/windows) =0 assume scp under windows accepts windows style paths (default/else) g:netrw_ftp =0 use default ftp (uid password) g:netrw_ftpmode ="binary" (default) ="ascii" (your choice) g:netrw_ignorenetrc =1 (default) if you have a <.netrc> file but you don't want it used, then set this variable. Its mere existence is enough to cause <.netrc> to be ignored. b:netrw_lastfile Holds latest method/machine/path. b:netrw_line Holds current line number (during NetWrite) g:netrw_silent =0 transfers done normally =1 transfers done silently g:netrw_uid Holds current user-id for ftp. g:netrw_use_nt_rcp =0 don't use WinNT/2K/XP's rcp (default) =1 use WinNT/2K/XP's rcp, binary mode -----------------------------------------------------------------------
netrw-internal-variables The script will also make use of the following variables internally, albeit temporarily.
                     Temporary Variables
Variable                Meaning
--------                ------------------------------------
b:netrw_method Index indicating rcp/ftp+.netrc/ftp w:netrw_method (same as b:netrw_method) g:netrw_machine Holds machine name parsed from input b:netrw_fname Holds filename being accessed
Netrw supports a number of protocols. These protocols are invoked using the variables listed below, and may be modified by the user.
                       Protocol Control Options
Option            Type        Setting         Meaning
---------         --------    --------------  ---------------------------
netrw_ftp variable =doesn't exist userid set by "user userid" =0 userid set by "user userid" =1 userid set by "userid" NetReadFixup function =doesn't exist no change =exists Allows user to have files read via ftp automatically transformed however they wish by NetReadFixup() g:netrw_dav_cmd var ="cadaver" if cadaver is executable g:netrw_dav_cmd var ="curl -o" elseif curl is executable g:netrw_fetch_cmd var ="fetch -o" if fetch is available g:netrw_ftp_cmd var ="ftp" g:netrw_http_cmd var ="fetch -o" if fetch is available g:netrw_http_cmd var ="wget -O" else if wget is available g:netrw_http_put_cmd var ="curl -T" g:netrw_list_cmd var ="ssh USEPORT HOSTNAME ls -Fa" g:netrw_rcp_cmd var ="rcp" g:netrw_rsync_cmd var ="rsync" g:netrw_rsync_sep var ="/" used to separate the hostname from the file spec g:netrw_scp_cmd var ="scp -q" g:netrw_sftp_cmd var ="sftp"
The g:netrw_..._cmd options (g:netrw_ftp_cmd and g:netrw_sftp_cmd) specify the external program to use handle the ftp protocol. They may include command line options (such as -p for passive mode). Example:
let g:netrw_ftp_cmd= "ftp -p"
Browsing is supported by using the g:netrw_list_cmd; the substring "HOSTNAME" will be changed via substitution with whatever the current request is for a hostname.
Two options (g:netrw_ftp and netrw-fixup) both help with certain ftp's that give trouble . In order to best understand how to use these options if ftp is giving you troubles, a bit of discussion is provided on how netrw does ftp reads.
For ftp, netrw typically builds up lines of one of the following formats in a temporary file:
IF g:netrw_ftp !exists or is not 1     IF g:netrw_ftp exists and is 1
----------------------------------     ------------------------------
open machine [port] open machine [port] user userid password userid password [g:netrw_ftpmode] password [g:netrw_ftpextracmd] [g:netrw_ftpmode] get filename tempfile [g:netrw_extracmd] get filename tempfile
The g:netrw_ftpmode and g:netrw_ftpextracmd are optional.
Netrw then executes the lines above by use of a filter:
:%! {g:netrw_ftp_cmd} -i [-n]
where g:netrw_ftp_cmd is usually "ftp", -i tells ftp not to be interactive -n means don't use netrc and is used for Method #3 (ftp w/o <.netrc>)
If <.netrc> exists it will be used to avoid having to query the user for userid and password. The transferred file is put into a temporary file. The temporary file is then read into the main editing session window that requested it and the temporary file deleted.
If your ftp doesn't accept the "user" command and immediately just demands a userid, then try putting "let netrw_ftp=1" in your <.vimrc>.
netrw-cadaver To handle the SSL certificate dialog for untrusted servers, one may pull down the certificate and place it into /usr/ssl/cert.pem. This operation renders the server treatment as "trusted".
netrw-fixup netreadfixup If your ftp for whatever reason generates unwanted lines (such as AUTH messages) you may write a NetReadFixup() function:
function! NetReadFixup(method,line1,line2)
  " a:line1: first new line in current file
  " a:line2: last  new line in current file
  if     a:method == 1 "rcp
  elseif a:method == 2 "ftp + <.netrc>
  elseif a:method == 3 "ftp + machine,uid,password,filename
  elseif a:method == 4 "scp
  elseif a:method == 5 "http/wget
  elseif a:method == 6 "dav/cadaver
  elseif a:method == 7 "rsync
  elseif a:method == 8 "fetch
  elseif a:method == 9 "sftp
  else               " complain
> The NetReadFixup() function will be called if it exists and thus allows you to customize your reading process.
(Related topics: ftp netrw-userpass netrw-start)
Netrw supports the browsing of directories on your local system and on remote hosts; browsing includes listing files and directories, entering directories, editing files therein, deleting files/directories, making new directories, moving (renaming) files and directories, copying files and directories, etc. One may mark files and execute any system command on them! The Netrw browser generally implements the previous explorer's maps and commands for remote directories, although details (such as pertinent global variable names) necessarily differ. To browse a directory, simply "edit" it!
vim /your/directory/
vim .
vim c:\your\directory\
The Netrw remote file and directory browser handles two protocols: ssh and ftp. The protocol in the url, if it is ftp, will cause netrw also to use ftp in its remote browsing. Specifying any other protocol will cause it to be used for file transfers; but the ssh protocol will be used to do remote browsing.
To use Netrw's remote directory browser, simply attempt to read a "file" with a trailing slash and it will be interpreted as a request to list a directory:
vim [protocol]://[user@]hostname/path/
where [protocol] is typically scp or ftp. As an example, try:
vim ftp://ftp.home.vim.org/pub/vim/
For local directories, the trailing slash is not required. Again, because it's easy to miss: to browse remote directories, the URL must terminate with a slash!
If you'd like to avoid entering the password repeatedly for remote directory listings with ssh or scp, see netrw-ssh-hack. To avoid password entry with ftp, see netrw-netrc (if your ftp supports it).
There are several things you can do to affect the browser's display of files:
* To change the listing style, press the "i" key (netrw-i). Currently there are four styles: thin, long, wide, and tree. To make that change "permanent", see g:netrw_liststyle.
* To hide files (don't want to see those xyz~ files anymore?) see netrw-ctrl-h.
* Press s to sort files by name, time, or size.
See netrw-browse-cmds for all the things you can do with netrw!
netrw-getftype netrw-filigree netrw-ftype The getftype() function is used to append a bit of filigree to indicate filetype to locally listed files:
directory : / executable : * fifo : | links : @ sockets : =
The filigree also affects the g:netrw_sort_sequence.

QUICK HELP netrw-quickhelp {{{2

(Use ctrl-] to select a topic)~ Intro to Browsing...............................|netrw-intro-browse| Quick Reference: Maps.........................|netrw-quickmap| Quick Reference: Commands.....................|netrw-browse-cmds| Hiding Edit hiding list..............................|netrw-ctrl-h| Hiding Files or Directories...................|netrw-a| Hiding/Unhiding by suffix.....................|netrw-mh| Hiding dot-files.............................|netrw-gh| Listing Style Select listing style (thin/long/wide/tree)....|netrw-i| Associated setting variable...................|g:netrw_liststyle| Shell command used to perform listing.........|g:netrw_list_cmd| Quick file info...............................|netrw-qf| Sorted by Select sorting style (name/time/size).........|netrw-s| Editing the sorting sequence..................|netrw-S| Sorting options...............................|g:netrw_sort_options| Associated setting variable...................|g:netrw_sort_sequence| Reverse sorting order.........................|netrw-r|
netrw-quickmap netrw-quickmaps QUICK REFERENCE: MAPS netrw-browse-maps {{{2
---                        -----------------                        ----
Map                        Quick Explanation                        Link
---                        -----------------                        ----
<F1> Causes Netrw to issue help <cr> Netrw will enter the directory or read the file netrw-cr <del> Netrw will attempt to remove the file/directory netrw-del <c-h> Edit file hiding list netrw-ctrl-h <c-l> Causes Netrw to refresh the directory listing netrw-ctrl-l <c-r> Browse using a gvim server netrw-ctrl-r <c-tab> Shrink/expand a netrw/explore window netrw-c-tab - Makes Netrw go up one directory netrw-- a Cycles between normal display, netrw-a hiding (suppress display of files matching g:netrw_list_hide) and showing (display only files which match g:netrw_list_hide) cd Make browsing directory the current directory netrw-cd C Setting the editing window netrw-C d Make a directory netrw-d D Attempt to remove the file(s)/directory(ies) netrw-D gb Go to previous bookmarked directory netrw-gb gd Force treatment as directory netrw-gd gf Force treatment as file netrw-gf gh Quick hide/unhide of dot-files netrw-gh gn Make top of tree the directory below the cursor netrw-gn gp Change local-only file permissions netrw-gp i Cycle between thin, long, wide, and tree listings netrw-i I Toggle the displaying of the banner netrw-I mb Bookmark current directory netrw-mb mc Copy marked files to marked-file target directory netrw-mc md Apply diff to marked files (up to 3) netrw-md me Place marked files on arg list and edit them netrw-me mf Mark a file netrw-mf mF Unmark files netrw-mF mg Apply vimgrep to marked files netrw-mg mh Toggle marked file suffices' presence on hiding list netrw-mh mm Move marked files to marked-file target directory netrw-mm mr Mark files using a shell-style regexp netrw-mr mt Current browsing directory becomes markfile target netrw-mt mT Apply ctags to marked files netrw-mT mu Unmark all marked files netrw-mu mv Apply arbitrary vim command to marked files netrw-mv mx Apply arbitrary shell command to marked files netrw-mx mX Apply arbitrary shell command to marked files en bloc|netrw-mX| mz Compress/decompress marked files netrw-mz o Enter the file/directory under the cursor in a new netrw-o browser window. A horizontal split is used. O Obtain a file specified by cursor netrw-O p Preview the file netrw-p P Browse in the previously used window netrw-P qb List bookmarked directories and history netrw-qb qf Display information on file netrw-qf qF Mark files using a quickfix list netrw-qF qL Mark files using a location-list netrw-qL r Reverse sorting order netrw-r R Rename the designated file(s)/directory(ies) netrw-R s Select sorting style: by name, time, or file size netrw-s S Specify suffix priority for name-sorting netrw-S t Enter the file/directory under the cursor in a new tab|netrw-t| u Change to recently-visited directory netrw-u U Change to subsequently-visited directory netrw-U v Enter the file/directory under the cursor in a new netrw-v browser window. A vertical split is used. x View file with an associated program netrw-x X Execute filename under cursor via system() netrw-X
% Open a new file in netrw's current directory netrw-%
netrw-mouse netrw-leftmouse netrw-middlemouse netrw-rightmouse <leftmouse> (gvim only) selects word under mouse as if a <cr> had been pressed (ie. edit file, change directory) <middlemouse> (gvim only) same as P selecting word under mouse; see netrw-P <rightmouse> (gvim only) delete file/directory using word under mouse <2-leftmouse> (gvim only) when: * in a netrw-selected file, AND * g:netrw_retmap == 1 AND * the user doesn't already have a <2-leftmouse> mapping defined before netrw is autoloaded, then a double clicked leftmouse button will return to the netrw browser window. See g:netrw_retmap. <s-leftmouse> (gvim only) like mf, will mark files. Dragging the shifted leftmouse will mark multiple files. (see netrw-mf)
(to disable mouse buttons while browsing: g:netrw_mousemaps)
netrw-quickcom netrw-quickcoms QUICK REFERENCE: COMMANDS netrw-explore-cmds netrw-browse-cmds {{{2 :NetrwClean[!]............................................|netrw-clean| :NetrwSettings............................................|netrw-settings| :Ntree....................................................|netrw-ntree| :Explore[!] [dir] Explore directory of current file......|netrw-explore| :Hexplore[!] [dir] Horizontal Split & Explore.............|netrw-explore| :Lexplore[!] [dir] Left Explorer Toggle...................|netrw-explore| :Nexplore[!] [dir] Vertical Split & Explore...............|netrw-explore| :Pexplore[!] [dir] Vertical Split & Explore...............|netrw-explore| :Rexplore Return to Explorer.....................|netrw-explore| :Sexplore[!] [dir] Split & Explore directory .............|netrw-explore| :Texplore[!] [dir] Tab & Explore..........................|netrw-explore| :Vexplore[!] [dir] Vertical Split & Explore...............|netrw-explore|
One may toggle the displaying of the banner by pressing "I".
Also See: g:netrw_banner
BOOKMARKING A DIRECTORY netrw-mb netrw-bookmark netrw-bookmarks {{{2
One may easily "bookmark" the currently browsed directory by using
.netrwbook Bookmarks are retained in between sessions of vim in a file called .netrwbook as a List, which is typically stored in the first directory on the user's 'runtimepath'; entries are kept in sorted order.
If there are marked files and/or directories, mb will add them to the bookmark list.
netrw-:NetrwMB Additionally, one may use :NetrwMB to bookmark files or directories.
:NetrwMB[!] [files/directories]
No bang: enters files/directories into Netrw's bookmark system
No argument and in netrw buffer: if there are marked files : bookmark marked files otherwise : bookmark file/directory under cursor No argument and not in netrw buffer: bookmarks current open file Has arguments : glob()s each arg and bookmarks them
With bang: deletes files/directories from Netrw's bookmark system
The :NetrwMB command is available outside of netrw buffers (once netrw has been invoked in the session).
The file ".netrwbook" holds bookmarks when netrw (and vim) is not active. By default, its stored on the first directory on the user's 'runtimepath'.
Related Topics: netrw-gb how to return (go) to a bookmark netrw-mB how to delete bookmarks netrw-qb how to list bookmarks g:netrw_home controls where .netrwbook is kept
Browsing is simple: move the cursor onto a file or directory of interest. Hitting the <cr> (the return key) will select the file or directory. Directories will themselves be listed, and files will be opened using the protocol given in the original read request.
CAVEAT: There are four forms of listing (see netrw-i). Netrw assumes that two or more spaces delimit filenames and directory names for the long and wide listing formats. Thus, if your filename or directory name has two or more sequential spaces embedded in it, or any trailing spaces, then you'll need to use the "thin" format to select it.
The g:netrw_browse_split option, which is zero by default, may be used to cause the opening of files to be done in a new window or tab instead of the default. When the option is one or two, the splitting will be taken horizontally or vertically, respectively. When the option is set to three, a <cr> will cause the file to appear in a new tab.
When using the gui (gvim), one may select a file by pressing the <leftmouse> button. In addition, if
* g:netrw_retmap == 1 AND (its default value is 0) * in a netrw-selected file, AND * the user doesn't already have a <2-leftmouse> mapping defined before netrw is loaded
then a doubly-clicked leftmouse button will return to the netrw browser window.
Netrw attempts to speed up browsing, especially for remote browsing where one may have to enter passwords, by keeping and re-using previously obtained directory listing buffers. The g:netrw_fastbrowse variable is used to control this behavior; one may have slow browsing (no buffer re-use), medium speed browsing (re-use directory buffer listings only for remote directories), and fast browsing (re-use directory buffer listings as often as possible). The price for such re-use is that when changes are made (such as new files are introduced into a directory), the listing may become out-of-date. One may always refresh directory listing buffers by pressing ctrl-L (see netrw-ctrl-l).
netrw-s-cr Squeezing the Current Tree-Listing Directory~
When the tree listing style is enabled (see netrw-i) and one is using gvim, then the <s-cr> mapping may be used to squeeze (close) the directory currently containing the cursor.
Otherwise, one may remap a key combination of one's own choice to get this effect:
nmap <buffer> <silent> <nowait> YOURKEYCOMBO  <Plug>NetrwTreeSqueeze
Put this line in $HOME/ftplugin/netrw/netrw.vim; it needs to be generated for netrw buffers only.
Normally one enters a file or directory using the <cr>. However, the "o" map allows one to open a new window to hold the new directory listing or file. A horizontal split is used. (for vertical splitting, see netrw-v)
Normally, the o key splits the window horizontally with the new window and cursor at the top.
Associated setting variables: g:netrw_alto g:netrw_winsize
Related topics: netrw-ctrl-r netrw-o netrw-p netrw-P netrw-t netrw-v Associated setting variables: g:netrw_alto control above/below splitting g:netrw_winsize control initial sizing
Normally one enters a file or directory using the <cr>. The "t" map allows one to open a new window holding the new directory listing or file in a new tab.
If you'd like to have the new listing in a background tab, use gT.
Related topics: netrw-ctrl-r netrw-o netrw-p netrw-P netrw-t netrw-v Associated setting variables: g:netrw_winsize control initial sizing
Normally one enters a file or directory using the <cr>. However, the "v" map allows one to open a new window to hold the new directory listing or file. A vertical split is used. (for horizontal splitting, see netrw-o)
Normally, the v key splits the window vertically with the new window and cursor at the left.
There is only one tree listing buffer; using "v" on a displayed subdirectory will split the screen, but the same buffer will be shown twice.
Related topics: netrw-ctrl-r netrw-o netrw-p netrw-P netrw-t netrw-v Associated setting variables: g:netrw_altv control right/left splitting g:netrw_winsize control initial sizing
One may keep a browsing gvim separate from the gvim being used to edit. Use the <c-r> map on a file (not a directory) in the netrw browser, and it will use a gvim server (see g:netrw_servername). Subsequent use of <cr> (see netrw-cr) will re-use that server for editing files.
Related topics: netrw-ctrl-r netrw-o netrw-p netrw-P netrw-t netrw-v Associated setting variables: g:netrw_servername : sets name of server g:netrw_browse_split : controls how <cr> will open files
The "i" map cycles between the thin, long, wide, and tree listing formats.
The thin listing format gives just the files' and directories' names.
The long listing is either based on the "ls" command via ssh for remote directories or displays the filename, file size (in bytes), and the time and date of last modification for local directories. With the long listing format, netrw is not able to recognize filenames which have trailing spaces. Use the thin listing format for such files.
The wide listing format uses two or more contiguous spaces to delineate filenames; when using that format, netrw won't be able to recognize or use filenames which have two or more contiguous spaces embedded in the name or any trailing spaces. The thin listing format will, however, work with such files. The wide listing format is the most compact.
The tree listing format has a top directory followed by files and directories preceded by one or more "|"s, which indicate the directory depth. One may open and close directories by pressing the <cr> key while atop the directory name.
One may make a preferred listing style your default; see g:netrw_liststyle. As an example, by putting the following line in your .vimrc,
let g:netrw_liststyle= 3
the tree style will become your default listing style.
One typical way to use the netrw tree display is to:
vim .
(use i until a tree display shows)
navigate to a file
v  (edit as desired in vertically split window)
ctrl-w h  (to return to the netrw listing)
P (edit newly selected file in the previous window)
ctrl-w h  (to return to the netrw listing)
P (edit newly selected file in the previous window)
"gp" will ask you for a new permission for the file named under the cursor. Currently, this only works for local files.
Associated setting variables: g:netrw_chgperm
To change directory back to a bookmarked directory, use
Any count may be used to reference any of the bookmarks. Note that netrw-qb shows both bookmarks and history; to go to a location stored in the history see netrw-u and netrw-U.
Related Topics: netrw-mB how to delete bookmarks netrw-mb how to make a bookmark netrw-qb how to list bookmarks
Every time you change to a new directory (new for the current session), netrw will save the directory in a recently-visited directory history list (unless g:netrw_dirhistmax is zero; by default, it holds ten entries). With the "u" map, one can change to an earlier directory (predecessor). To do the opposite, see netrw-U.
The "u" map also accepts counts to go back in the history several slots. For your convenience, qb (see netrw-qb) lists the history number which may be used in that count.
.netrwhist See g:netrw_dirhistmax for how to control the quantity of history stack slots. The file ".netrwhist" holds history when netrw (and vim) is not active. By default, its stored on the first directory on the user's 'runtimepath'.
Related Topics: netrw-U changing to a successor directory g:netrw_home controls where .netrwhist is kept
CHANGING TO A SUCCESSOR DIRECTORY netrw-U netrw-downdir {{{2
With the "U" map, one can change to a later directory (successor). This map is the opposite of the "u" map. (see netrw-u) Use the qb map to list both the bookmarks and history. (see netrw-qb)
The "U" map also accepts counts to go forward in the history several slots.
See g:netrw_dirhistmax for how to control the quantity of history stack slots.
One may specify a new tree top for tree listings using
:Ntree [dirname]
Without a "dirname", the current line is used (and any leading depth information is elided). With a "dirname", the specified directory name is used.
The "gn" map will take the word below the cursor and use that for changing the top of the tree listing.
With :NetrwClean one may easily remove netrw from one's home directory; more precisely, from the first directory on your 'runtimepath'.
With :NetrwClean!, netrw will attempt to remove netrw from all directories on your 'runtimepath'. Of course, you have to have write/delete permissions correct to do this.
With either form of the command, netrw will first ask for confirmation that the removal is in fact what you want to do. If netrw doesn't have permission to remove a file, it will issue an error message.
netrw-gx CUSTOMIZING BROWSING WITH A SPECIAL HANDLER netrw-x netrw-handler {{{2 (also see netrw_filehandler)
Certain files, such as html, gif, jpeg, (word/office) doc, etc, files, are best seen with a special handler (ie. a tool provided with your computer's operating system). Netrw allows one to invoke such special handlers by:
* when Exploring, hit the "x" key
* when editing, hit gx with the cursor atop the special filename
(latter not available if the g:netrw_nogx variable exists)
Netrw determines which special handler by the following method:
* if g:netrw_browsex_viewer exists, then it will be used to attempt to view files. Examples of useful settings (place into your <.vimrc>):
:let g:netrw_browsex_viewer= "kfmclient exec"
:let g:netrw_browsex_viewer= "xdg-open"
If g:netrw_browsex_viewer == '-', then netrwFileHandlers#Invoke() will be used instead (see netrw_filehandler).
If the viewer you wish to use does not support handling of a remote URL directory, set g:netrw_browsex_support_remote to 0. * for Windows 32 or 64, the URL and FileProtocolHandler dlls are used. * for Gnome (with gnome-open): gnome-open is used. * for KDE (with kfmclient) : kfmclient is used * for Mac OS X : open is used. * otherwise the netrwFileHandler plugin is used.
The file's suffix is used by these various approaches to determine an appropriate application to use to "handle" these files. Such things as OpenOffice (*.sfx), visualization (*.jpg, *.gif, etc), and PostScript (.ps,.eps) can be handled.
The gx mapping extends to all buffers; apply "gx" while atop a word and netrw will apply a special handler to it (like "x" works when in a netrw buffer). One may also use visual mode (see visual-start) to select the text that the special handler will use. Normally gx uses expand("<cfile>") to pick up the text under the cursor; one may change what expand() uses via the g:netrw_gx variable (options include "<cword>", "<cWORD>"). Note that expand("<cfile>") depends on the 'isfname' setting. Alternatively, one may select the text to be used by gx by making a visual selection (see visual-block) and then pressing gx.
Associated setting variables: g:netrw_gx control how gx picks up the text under the cursor g:netrw_nogx prevent gx map while editing g:netrw_suppress_gx_mesg controls gx's suppression of browser messages
When g:netrw_browsex_viewer exists and is "-", then netrw will attempt to handle the special file with a vim function. The "x" map applies a function to a file, based on its extension. Of course, the handler function must exist for it to be called!
Ex. mypgm.html   x -> NFH_html("scp://user@host/some/path/mypgm.html")
Users may write their own netrw File Handler functions to support more suffixes with special handling. See <autoload/netrwFileHandlers.vim> for examples on how to make file handler functions. As an example:
" NFH_suffix(filename)
fun! NFH_suffix(filename)
..do something special with filename..
These functions need to be defined in some file in your .vim/plugin (vimfiles\plugin) directory. Vim's function names may not have punctuation characters (except for the underscore) in them. To support suffices that contain such characters, netrw will first convert the suffix using the following table:
@ -> AT       ! -> EXCLAMATION    % -> PERCENT
: -> COLON    = -> EQUAL          ? -> QUESTION
, -> COMMA    - -> MINUS          ; -> SEMICOLON
$ -> DOLLAR   + -> PLUS           ~ -> TILDE
So, for example:
file.rcs,v  ->  NFH_rcsCOMMAv()
If more such translations are necessary, please send me email:
[email protected]
with a request. (remove the embedded NOSPAM first)
Associated setting variable: g:netrw_browsex_viewer
To delete a bookmark, use
If there are marked files, then mB will remove them from the bookmark list.
Alternatively, one may use :NetrwMB! (see netrw-:NetrwMB).
:NetrwMB! [files/directories]
Related Topics: netrw-gb how to return (go) to a bookmark netrw-mb how to make a bookmark netrw-qb how to list bookmarks
If files have not been marked with netrw-mf: (local marked file list)
Deleting/removing files and directories involves moving the cursor to the file/directory to be deleted and pressing "D". Directories must be empty first before they can be successfully removed. If the directory is a softlink to a directory, then netrw will make two requests to remove the directory before succeeding. Netrw will ask for confirmation before doing the removal(s). You may select a range of lines with the "V" command (visual selection), and then pressing "D".
If files have been marked with netrw-mf: (local marked file list)
Marked files (and empty directories) will be deleted; again, you'll be asked to confirm the deletion before it actually takes place.
A further approach is to delete files which match a pattern.
* use :MF pattern (see netrw-:MF); then press "D".
* use mr (see netrw-mr) which will prompt you for pattern. This will cause the matching files to be marked. Then, press "D".
Please note that only empty directories may be deleted with the "D" mapping. Regular files are deleted with delete(), too.
The g:netrw_rm_cmd, g:netrw_rmf_cmd, and g:netrw_rmdir_cmd variables are used to control the attempts to remove remote files and directories. The g:netrw_rm_cmd is used with files, and its default value is:
g:netrw_rm_cmd: ssh HOSTNAME rm
The g:netrw_rmdir_cmd variable is used to support the removal of directories. Its default value is:
g:netrw_rmdir_cmd: ssh HOSTNAME rmdir
If removing a directory fails with g:netrw_rmdir_cmd, netrw then will attempt to remove it again using the g:netrw_rmf_cmd variable. Its default value is:
g:netrw_rmf_cmd: ssh HOSTNAME rm -f
Related topics: netrw-d Associated setting variable: g:netrw_rm_cmd g:netrw_ssh_cmd
:[N]Explore[!] [dir]... Explore directory of current file :Explore :[N]Hexplore[!] [dir]... Horizontal Split & Explore :Hexplore :[N]Lexplore[!] [dir]... Left Explorer Toggle :Lexplore :[N]Sexplore[!] [dir]... Split&Explore current file's directory :Sexplore :[N]Vexplore[!] [dir]... Vertical Split & Explore :Vexplore :Texplore [dir]... Tab & Explore :Texplore :Rexplore ... Return to/from Explorer :Rexplore
Used with :Explore **/pattern : (also see netrw-starstar) :Nexplore............. go to next matching file :Nexplore :Pexplore............. go to previous matching file :Pexplore
netrw-:Explore :Explore will open the local-directory browser on the current file's directory (or on directory [dir] if specified). The window will be split only if the file has been modified and 'hidden' is not set, otherwise the browsing window will take over that window. Normally the splitting is taken horizontally. Also see: netrw-:Rexplore :Explore! is like :Explore, but will use vertical splitting.
netrw-:Hexplore :Hexplore [dir] does an :Explore with :belowright horizontal splitting. :Hexplore! [dir] does an :Explore with :aboveleft horizontal splitting.
netrw-:Lexplore :[N]Lexplore [dir] toggles a full height Explorer window on the left hand side of the current tab. It will open a netrw window on the current directory if [dir] is omitted; a :Lexplore [dir] will show the specified directory in the left-hand side browser display no matter from which window the command is issued.
By default, :Lexplore will change an uninitialized g:netrw_chgwin to 2; edits will thus preferentially be made in window#2.
The [N] specifies a g:netrw_winsize just for the new :Lexplore window. That means that if [N] < 0 : use N columns for the Lexplore window if [N] = 0 : a normal split is made if [N] > 0 : use N% of the current window will be used for the new window
Those who like this method often also like tree style displays; see g:netrw_liststyle.
:[N]Lexplore! [dir] is similar to :Lexplore, except that the full-height Explorer window will open on the right hand side and an uninitialized g:netrw_chgwin will be set to 1 (eg. edits will preferentially occur in the leftmost window).
netrw-:Sexplore :[N]Sexplore will always split the window before invoking the local-directory browser. As with Explore, the splitting is normally done horizontally. :[N]Sexplore! [dir] is like :Sexplore, but the splitting will be done vertically.
netrw-:Texplore :Texplore [dir] does a :tabnew before generating the browser window
netrw-:Vexplore :[N]Vexplore [dir] does an :Explore with :leftabove vertical splitting. :[N]Vexplore! [dir] does an :Explore with :rightbelow vertical splitting.
The optional parameters are:
[N]: This parameter will override g:netrw_winsize to specify the quantity of rows and/or columns the new explorer window should have. Otherwise, the g:netrw_winsize variable, if it has been specified by the user, is used to control the quantity of rows and/or columns new explorer windows should have.
[dir]: By default, these explorer commands use the current file's directory. However, one may explicitly provide a directory (path) to use instead; ie.
:Explore /some/path
netrw-:Rexplore :Rexplore This command is a little different from the other Explore commands as it doesn't necessarily open an Explorer window.
Return to Explorer~ When one edits a file using netrw which can occur, for example, when pressing <cr> while the cursor is atop a filename in a netrw browser window, a :Rexplore issued while editing that file will return the display to that of the last netrw browser display in that window.
Return from Explorer~ Conversely, when one is editing a directory, issuing a :Rexplore will return to editing the file that was last edited in that window.
The <2-leftmouse> map (which is only available under gvim and cooperative terms) does the same as :Rexplore.
netrw-star netrw-starpat netrw-starstar netrw-starstarpat netrw-grep EXPLORING WITH STARS AND PATTERNS {{{2
When Explore, Sexplore, Hexplore, or Vexplore are used with one of the following four patterns Explore generates a list of files which satisfy the request for the local file system. These exploration patterns will not work with remote file browsing.
*/filepat files in current directory which satisfy filepat **/filepat files in current directory or below which satisfy the file pattern *//pattern files in the current directory which contain the pattern (vimgrep is used) **//pattern files in the current directory or below which contain the pattern (vimgrep is used)
The cursor will be placed on the first file in the list. One may then continue to go to subsequent files on that list via :Nexplore or to preceding files on that list with :Pexplore. Explore will update the directory and place the cursor appropriately.
A plain
will clear the explore list.
If your console or gui produces recognizable shift-up or shift-down sequences, then you'll likely find using shift-downarrow and shift-uparrow convenient. They're mapped by netrw as follows:
<s-down> == Nexplore, and <s-up> == Pexplore.
As an example, consider
:Explore */*.c
The status line will show, on the right hand side of the status line, a message like "Match 3 of 20".
With the cursor atop a filename, pressing "qf" will reveal the file's size and last modification timestamp. Currently this capability is only available for local files.
The "<ctrl-h>" map brings up a requestor allowing the user to change the file/directory hiding list contained in g:netrw_list_hide. The hiding list consists of one or more patterns delimited by commas. Files and/or directories satisfying these patterns will either be hidden (ie. not shown) or be the only ones displayed (see netrw-a).
The "gh" mapping (see netrw-gh) quickly alternates between the usual hiding list and the hiding of files or directories that begin with ".".
As an example,
let g:netrw_list_hide= '\(^\|\s\s\)\zs\.\S\+'
Effectively, this makes the effect of a netrw-gh command the initial setting. What it means:
\(^\|\s\s\) : if the line begins with the following, -or- two consecutive spaces are encountered \zs : start the hiding match now \. : if it now begins with a dot \S\+ : and is followed by one or more non-whitespace characters
Associated setting variables: g:netrw_hide g:netrw_list_hide Associated topics: netrw-a netrw-gh netrw-mh
When "Sorted by" is name, one may specify priority via the sorting sequence (g:netrw_sort_sequence). The sorting sequence typically prioritizes the name-listing by suffix, although any pattern will do. Patterns are delimited by commas. The default sorting sequence is (all one line):
For Unix:
The lone * is where all filenames not covered by one of the other patterns will end up. One may change the sorting sequence by modifying the g:netrw_sort_sequence variable (either manually or in your <.vimrc>) or by using the "S" map.
Related topics: netrw-s netrw-S Associated setting variables: g:netrw_sort_sequence g:netrw_sort_options
Pressing X while the cursor is atop an executable file will yield a prompt using the filename asking for any arguments. Upon pressing a [return], netrw will then call system() with that command and arguments. The result will be displayed by :echomsg, and so :messages will repeat display of the result. Ansi escape sequences will be stripped out.
See cmdline-window for directions for more on how to edit the arguments.
Remote symbolic links (ie. those listed via ssh or ftp) are problematic in that it is difficult to tell whether they link to a file or to a directory.
To force treatment as a file: use
To force treatment as a directory: use
To go up a directory, press "-" or press the <cr> when atop the ../ directory entry in the listing.
Netrw will use the command in g:netrw_list_cmd to perform the directory listing operation after changing HOSTNAME to the host specified by the user-prpvided url. By default netrw provides the command as:
ssh HOSTNAME ls -FLa
where the HOSTNAME becomes the [user@]hostname as requested by the attempt to read. Naturally, the user may override this command with whatever is preferred. The NetList function which implements remote browsing expects that directories will be flagged by a trailing slash.
Netrw's browsing facility allows one to use the hiding list in one of three ways: ignore it, hide files which match, and show only those files which match.
If no files have been marked via netrw-mf:
The "a" map allows the user to cycle through the three hiding modes.
The g:netrw_list_hide variable holds a comma delimited list of patterns based on regular expressions (ex. ^.*\.obj$,^\.) which specify the hiding list. (also see netrw-ctrl-h) To set the hiding list, use the <c-h> map. As an example, to hide files which begin with a ".", one may use the <c-h> map to set the hiding list to '^\..*' (or one may put let g:netrw_list_hide= '^\..*' in one's <.vimrc>). One may then use the "a" key to show all files, hide matching files, or to show only the matching files.
Example: \.[ch]$ This hiding list command will hide/show all *.c and *.h files.
Example: \.c$,\.h$ This hiding list command will also hide/show all *.c and *.h files.
Don't forget to use the "a" map to select the mode (normal/hiding/show) you want!
If files have been marked using netrw-mf, then this command will:
if showing all files or non-hidden files: modify the g:netrw_list_hide list by appending the marked files to it and showing only non-hidden files.
else if showing hidden files only: modify the g:netrw_list_hide list by removing the marked files from it and showing only non-hidden files. endif
netrw-gh netrw-hide As a quick shortcut, one may press
to toggle between hiding files which begin with a period (dot) and not hiding them.
Associated setting variables: g:netrw_list_hide g:netrw_hide Associated topics: netrw-a netrw-ctrl-h netrw-mh
netrw-gitignore Netrw provides a helper function 'netrw_gitignore#Hide()' that, when used with g:netrw_list_hide automatically hides all git-ignored files.
'netrw_gitignore#Hide' searches for patterns in the following files:
global gitignore file: `git config --global core.excludesfile`
system gitignore file: `git config --system core.excludesfile`
Files that do not exist, are ignored. Git-ignore patterns are taken from existing files, and converted to patterns for hiding files. For example, if you had '*.log' in your '.gitignore' file, it would be converted to '.*\.log'.
To use this function, simply assign its output to g:netrw_list_hide option.
Example: let g:netrw_list_hide= netrw_gitignore#Hide()
        Git-ignored files are hidden in Netrw.
Example: let g:netrw_list_hide= netrw_gitignore#Hide('my_gitignore_file')
        Function can take additional files with git-ignore patterns.
Example: let g:netrw_list_hide= netrw_gitignore#Hide() .. '.*\.swp$'
        Combining 'netrw_gitignore#Hide' with custom patterns.
Especially with the remote directory browser, constantly entering the password is tedious.
For Linux/Unix systems, the book "Linux Server Hacks - 100 industrial strength tips & tools" by Rob Flickenger (O'Reilly, ISBN 0-596-00461-3) gives a tip for setting up no-password ssh and scp and discusses associated security issues. It used to be available at http://hacks.oreilly.com/pub/h/66 , but apparently that address is now being redirected to some "hackzine". I'll attempt a summary based on that article and on a communication from Ben Schmidt:
1. Generate a public/private key pair on the local machine (ssh client):
ssh-keygen -t rsa
(saving the file in ~/.ssh/id_rsa as prompted)
2. Just hit the <CR> when asked for passphrase (twice) for no passphrase. If you do use a passphrase, you will also need to use ssh-agent so you only have to type the passphrase once per session. If you don't use a passphrase, simply logging onto your local computer or getting access to the keyfile in any way will suffice to access any ssh servers which have that key authorized for login.
3. This creates two files:
4. On the target machine (ssh server):
mkdir -p .ssh
chmod 0700 .ssh
5. On your local machine (ssh client): (one line)
ssh {serverhostname}
  cat '>>' '~/.ssh/authorized_keys2' < ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
or, for OpenSSH, (one line)
ssh {serverhostname}
  cat '>>' '~/.ssh/authorized_keys' < ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
You can test it out with
ssh {serverhostname}
and you should be log onto the server machine without further need to type anything.
If you decided to use a passphrase, do:
ssh-agent $SHELL
ssh {serverhostname}
You will be prompted for your key passphrase when you use ssh-add, but not subsequently when you use ssh. For use with vim, you can use
ssh-agent vim
and, when next within vim, use
Alternatively, you can apply ssh-agent to the terminal you're planning on running vim in:
ssh-agent xterm &
and do ssh-add whenever you need.
For Windows, folks on the vim mailing list have mentioned that Pageant helps with avoiding the constant need to enter the password.
Kingston Fung wrote about another way to avoid constantly needing to enter passwords:
In order to avoid the need to type in the password for scp each time, you provide a hack in the docs to set up a non password ssh account. I found a better way to do that: I can use a regular ssh account which uses a password to access the material without the need to key-in the password each time. It's good for security and convenience. I tried ssh public key authorization + ssh-agent, implementing this, and it works!
Ssh hints:
Thomer Gil has provided a hint on how to speed up netrw+ssh: http://thomer.com/howtos/netrw_ssh.html
Alex Young has several hints on speeding ssh up: http://usevim.com/2012/03/16/editing-remote-files/
Pressing "qb" (query bookmarks) will list both the bookmarked directories and directory traversal history.
Related Topics: netrw-gb how to return (go) to a bookmark netrw-mb how to make a bookmark netrw-mB how to delete bookmarks netrw-u change to a predecessor directory via the history stack netrw-U change to a successor directory via the history stack
With the "d" map one may make a new directory either remotely (which depends on the global variable g:netrw_mkdir_cmd) or locally (which depends on the global variable g:netrw_localmkdir). Netrw will issue a request for the new directory's name. A bare <CR> at that point will abort the making of the directory. Attempts to make a local directory that already exists (as either a file or a directory) will be detected, reported on, and ignored.
Related topics: netrw-D Associated setting variables: g:netrw_localmkdir g:netrw_mkdir_cmd g:netrw_remote_mkdir netrw-%
By default, g:netrw_keepdir is 1. This setting means that the current directory will not track the browsing directory. (done for backwards compatibility with v6's file explorer).
Setting g:netrw_keepdir to 0 tells netrw to make vim's current directory track netrw's browsing directory.
However, given the default setting for g:netrw_keepdir of 1 where netrw maintains its own separate notion of the current directory, in order to make the two directories the same, use the "cd" map (type cd). That map will set Vim's notion of the current directory to netrw's current browsing directory.
netrw-cd : This map's name was changed from "c" to cd (see netrw-cd). This change was done to allow for netrw-cb and netrw-cB maps.
Associated setting variable: g:netrw_keepdir
Netrw provides several ways to mark files:
* One may mark files with the cursor atop a filename and then pressing "mf".
* With gvim, in addition one may mark files with <s-leftmouse>. (see netrw-mouse)
* One may use the :MF command, which takes a list of files (for local directories, the list may include wildcards -- see glob())
:MF *.c
(Note that :MF uses <f-args> to break the line at spaces)
* Mark files using the argument-list (netrw-mA)
* Mark files based upon a location-list (netrw-qL)
* Mark files based upon the quickfix list (netrw-qF) (quickfix-error-lists)
The following netrw maps make use of marked files:
netrw-a Hide marked files/directories netrw-D Delete marked files/directories netrw-ma Move marked files' names to arglist netrw-mA Move arglist filenames to marked file list netrw-mb Append marked files to bookmarks netrw-mB Delete marked files from bookmarks netrw-mc Copy marked files to target netrw-md Apply vimdiff to marked files netrw-me Edit marked files netrw-mF Unmark marked files netrw-mg Apply vimgrep to marked files netrw-mm Move marked files to target netrw-ms Netrw will source marked files netrw-mt Set target for netrw-mm and netrw-mc netrw-mT Generate tags using marked files netrw-mv Apply vim command to marked files netrw-mx Apply shell command to marked files netrw-mX Apply shell command to marked files, en bloc netrw-mz Compress/Decompress marked files netrw-O Obtain marked files netrw-R Rename marked files
One may unmark files one at a time the same way one marks them; ie. place the cursor atop a marked file and press "mf". This process also works with <s-leftmouse> using gvim. One may unmark all files by pressing "mu" (see netrw-mu).
Marked files are highlighted using the "netrwMarkFile" highlighting group, which by default is linked to "Identifier" (see Identifier under group-name). You may change the highlighting group by putting something like
highlight clear netrwMarkFile
hi link netrwMarkFile ..whatever..
into $HOME/.vim/after/syntax/netrw.vim .
If the mouse is enabled and works with your vim, you may use <s-leftmouse> to mark one or more files. You may mark multiple files by dragging the shifted leftmouse. (see netrw-mouse)
markfilelist global_markfilelist local_markfilelist All marked files are entered onto the global marked file list; there is only one such list. In addition, every netrw buffer also has its own buffer-local marked file list; since netrw buffers are associated with specific directories, this means that each directory has its own local marked file list. The various commands which operate on marked files use one or the other of the marked file lists.
Known Problem: if one is using tree mode (g:netrw_liststyle) and several directories have files with the same name, then marking such a file will result in all such files being highlighted as if they were all marked. The markfilelist, however, will only have the selected file in it. This problem is unlikely to be fixed.
The "mF" command will unmark all files in the current buffer. One may also use mf (netrw-mf) on a specific, already marked, file to unmark just that file.
One may convert location-lists into a marked file list using "qL". You may then proceed with commands such as me (netrw-me) to edit them.
One may convert quickfix-error-lists into a marked file list using "qF". You may then proceed with commands such as me (netrw-me) to edit them. Quickfix error lists are generated, for example, by calls to :vimgrep.
One may also mark files by pressing "mr"; netrw will then issue a prompt, "Enter regexp: ". You may then enter a shell-style regular expression such as *.c$ (see glob()). For remote systems, glob() doesn't work -- so netrw converts "*" into ".*" (see regexp) and marks files based on that. In the future I may make it possible to use regexps instead of glob()-style expressions (yet-another-option).
See cmdline-window for directions on more on how to edit the regular expression.
MARKED FILES, ARBITRARY VIM COMMAND netrw-mv {{{2 (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files) (uses the local marked-file list)
The "mv" map causes netrw to execute an arbitrary vim command on each file on the local marked file list, individually:
* 1split * sil! keepalt e file * run vim command * sil! keepalt wq!
A prompt, "Enter vim command: ", will be issued to elicit the vim command you wish used. See cmdline-window for directions for more on how to edit the command.
MARKED FILES, ARBITRARY SHELL COMMAND netrw-mx {{{2 (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files) (uses the local marked-file list)
Upon activation of the "mx" map, netrw will query the user for some (external) command to be applied to all marked files. All "%"s in the command will be substituted with the name of each marked file in turn. If no "%"s are in the command, then the command will be followed by a space and a marked filename.
Example: (mark files) mx Enter command: cat
The result is a series of shell commands: cat 'file1' cat 'file2' ...
MARKED FILES, ARBITRARY SHELL COMMAND, EN BLOC netrw-mX {{{2 (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files) (uses the global marked-file list)
Upon activation of the 'mX' map, netrw will query the user for some (external) command to be applied to all marked files on the global marked file list. The "en bloc" means that one command will be executed on all the files at once:
command files
This approach is useful, for example, to select files and make a tarball:
(mark files)
Enter command: tar cf mynewtarball.tar
The command that will be run with this example:
tar cf mynewtarball.tar 'file1' 'file2' ...
MARKED FILES: ARGUMENT LIST netrw-ma netrw-mA (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files) (uses the global marked-file list)
Using ma, one moves filenames from the marked file list to the argument list. Using mA, one moves filenames from the argument list to the marked file list.
MARKED FILES: BUFFER LIST netrw-cb netrw-cB (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files) (uses the global marked-file list)
Using cb, one moves filenames from the marked file list to the buffer list. Using cB, one copies filenames from the buffer list to the marked file list.
MARKED FILES: COMPRESSION AND DECOMPRESSION netrw-mz {{{2 (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files) (uses the local marked file list)
If any marked files are compressed, then "mz" will decompress them. If any marked files are decompressed, then "mz" will compress them using the command specified by g:netrw_compress; by default, that's "gzip".
For decompression, netrw uses a Dictionary of suffices and their associated decompressing utilities; see g:netrw_decompress.
Remember that one can mark multiple files by regular expression (see netrw-mr); this is particularly useful to facilitate compressing and decompressing a large number of files.
Associated setting variables: g:netrw_compress g:netrw_decompress
MARKED FILES: COPYING netrw-mc {{{2 (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files) (Uses the global marked file list)
Select a target directory with mt (netrw-mt). Then change directory, select file(s) (see netrw-mf), and press "mc". The copy is done from the current window (where one does the mf) to the target.
If one does not have a target directory set with netrw-mt, then netrw will query you for a directory to copy to.
One may also copy directories and their contents (local only) to a target directory.
MARKED FILES: DIFF netrw-md {{{2 (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files) (uses the global marked file list)
Use vimdiff to visualize difference between selected files (two or three may be selected for this). Uses the global marked file list.
MARKED FILES: EDITING netrw-me {{{2 (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files) (uses the global marked file list)
The "me" command will place the marked files on the arglist and commence editing them. One may return the to explorer window with :Rexplore. (use :n and :p to edit next and previous files in the arglist)
MARKED FILES: GREP netrw-mg {{{2 (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files) (uses the global marked file list)
The "mg" command will apply :vimgrep to the marked files. The command will ask for the requested pattern; one may then enter:
! /pattern/[g][j]
With /pattern/, editing will start with the first item on the quickfix list that vimgrep sets up (see :copen, :cnext, :cprevious, :cclose). The :vimgrep command is in use, so without 'g' each line is added to quickfix list only once; with 'g' every match is included.
With /pattern/j, "mg" will winnow the current marked file list to just those marked files also possessing the specified pattern. Thus, one may use
mr ...file-pattern...
mg /pattern/j
to have a marked file list satisfying the file-pattern but also restricted to files containing some desired pattern.
MARKED FILES: HIDING AND UNHIDING BY SUFFIX netrw-mh {{{2 (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files) (uses the local marked file list)
The "mh" command extracts the suffices of the marked files and toggles their presence on the hiding list. Please note that marking the same suffix this way multiple times will result in the suffix's presence being toggled for each file (so an even quantity of marked files having the same suffix is the same as not having bothered to select them at all).
Related topics: netrw-a g:netrw_list_hide
MARKED FILES: MOVING netrw-mm {{{2 (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files) (uses the global marked file list)
WARNING: moving files is more dangerous than copying them. A file being moved is first copied and then deleted; if the copy operation fails and the delete succeeds, you will lose the file. Either try things out with unimportant files first or do the copy and then delete yourself using mc and D. Use at your own risk!
Select a target directory with mt (netrw-mt). Then change directory, select file(s) (see netrw-mf), and press "mm". The move is done from the current window (where one does the mf) to the target.
Associated setting variable: g:netrw_localmovecmd g:netrw_ssh_cmd
MARKED FILES: SOURCING netrw-ms {{{2 (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files) (uses the local marked file list)
With "ms", netrw will source the marked files (using vim's :source command)
MARKED FILES: SETTING THE TARGET DIRECTORY netrw-mt {{{2 (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
Set the marked file copy/move-to target (see netrw-mc and netrw-mm):
* If the cursor is atop a file name, then the netrw window's currently displayed directory is used for the copy/move-to target.
* Also, if the cursor is in the banner, then the netrw window's currently displayed directory is used for the copy/move-to target. Unless the target already is the current directory. In which case, typing "mf" clears the target.
* However, if the cursor is atop a directory name, then that directory is used for the copy/move-to target
* One may use the :MT [directory] command to set the target netrw-:MT This command uses <q-args>, so spaces in the directory name are permitted without escaping.
* With mouse-enabled vim or with gvim, one may select a target by using <c-leftmouse>
There is only one copy/move-to target at a time in a vim session; ie. the target is a script variable (see s:var) and is shared between all netrw windows (in an instance of vim).
When using menus and gvim, netrw provides a "Targets" entry which allows one to pick a target from the list of bookmarks and history.
Related topics: Marking Files......................................|netrw-mf| Marking Files by Regular Expression................|netrw-mr| Marked Files: Target Directory Using Bookmarks.....|netrw-Tb| Marked Files: Target Directory Using History.......|netrw-Th|
MARKED FILES: TAGGING netrw-mT {{{2 (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files) (uses the global marked file list)
The "mT" mapping will apply the command in g:netrw_ctags (by default, it is "ctags") to marked files. For remote browsing, in order to create a tags file netrw will use ssh (see g:netrw_ssh_cmd), and so ssh must be available for this to work on remote systems. For your local system, see ctags on how to get a version. I myself use hdrtags, currently available at http://www.drchip.org/astronaut/src/index.html , and have
let g:netrw_ctags= "hdrtag"
in my <.vimrc>.
When a remote set of files are tagged, the resulting tags file is "obtained"; ie. a copy is transferred to the local system's directory. The now local tags file is then modified so that one may use it through the network. The modification made concerns the names of the files in the tags; each filename is preceded by the netrw-compatible URL used to obtain it. When one subsequently uses one of the go to tag actions (tags), the URL will be used by netrw to edit the desired file and go to the tag.
Associated setting variables: g:netrw_ctags g:netrw_ssh_cmd
Sets the marked file copy/move-to target.
The netrw-qb map will give you a list of bookmarks (and history). One may choose one of the bookmarks to become your marked file target by using [count]Tb (default count: 1).
Related topics: Copying files to target............................|netrw-mc| Listing Bookmarks and History......................|netrw-qb| Marked Files: Setting The Target Directory.........|netrw-mt| Marked Files: Target Directory Using History.......|netrw-Th| Marking Files......................................|netrw-mf| Marking Files by Regular Expression................|netrw-mr| Moving files to target.............................|netrw-mm|
Sets the marked file copy/move-to target.
The netrw-qb map will give you a list of history (and bookmarks). One may choose one of the history entries to become your marked file target by using [count]Th (default count: 0; ie. the current directory).
Related topics: Copying files to target............................|netrw-mc| Listing Bookmarks and History......................|netrw-qb| Marked Files: Setting The Target Directory.........|netrw-mt| Marked Files: Target Directory Using Bookmarks.....|netrw-Tb| Marking Files......................................|netrw-mf| Marking Files by Regular Expression................|netrw-mr| Moving files to target.............................|netrw-mm|
MARKED FILES: UNMARKING netrw-mu {{{2 (See netrw-mf, netrw-mF)
The "mu" mapping will unmark all currently marked files. This command differs from "mF" as the latter only unmarks files in the current directory whereas "mu" will unmark global and all buffer-local marked files. (see netrw-mF)
(if you're interested in the netrw file transfer settings, see netrw-options and netrw-protocol)
The <netrw.vim> browser provides settings in the form of variables which you may modify; by placing these settings in your <.vimrc>, you may customize your browsing preferences. (see also: netrw-settings)
---                                -----------
Var                                Explanation
---                                -----------
g:netrw_altfile some like CTRL-^ to return to the last edited file. Choose that by setting this parameter to 1. Others like CTRL-^ to return to the netrw browsing buffer. Choose that by setting this parameter to 0. default: =0
g:netrw_alto change from above splitting to below splitting by setting this variable (see netrw-o) default: =&sb (see 'sb')
g:netrw_altv change from left splitting to right splitting by setting this variable (see netrw-v) default: =&spr (see 'spr')
g:netrw_banner enable/suppress the banner =0: suppress the banner =1: banner is enabled (default)
g:netrw_bannerbackslash if this variable exists and is not zero, the banner will be displayed with backslashes rather than forward slashes.
g:netrw_browse_split when browsing, <cr> will open the file by: =0: re-using the same window (default) =1: horizontally splitting the window first =2: vertically splitting the window first =3: open file in new tab =4: act like "P" (ie. open previous window) Note that g:netrw_preview may be used to get vertical splitting instead of horizontal splitting. =[servername,tab-number,window-number] Given a List such as this, a remote server named by the "servername" will be used for editing. It will also use the specified tab and window numbers to perform editing (see clientserver, netrw-ctrl-r) This option does not affect the production of :Lexplore windows.
g:netrw_browsex_viewer specify user's preference for a viewer:
"kfmclient exec"
is used, then netrwFileHandler() will look for a script/function to handle the given extension. (see netrw_filehandler).
g:netrw_browsex_support_remote specify if the specified viewer supports a remote URL. (see netrw-handler).
g:netrw_chgperm Unix/Linux: "chmod PERM FILENAME" Windows: "cacls FILENAME /e /p PERM" Used to change access permission for a file.
g:netrw_clipboard =1 By default, netrw will attempt to insure that the clipboard's values will remain unchanged. However, some users report that they have speed problems with this; consequently, this option, when set to zero, lets such users prevent netrw from saving and restoring the clipboard (the latter is done only as needed). That means that if the clipboard is changed (inadvertently) by normal netrw operation that it will not be restored to its prior state.
g:netrw_compress ="gzip" Will compress marked files with this command
g:Netrw_corehandler Allows one to specify something additional to do when handling <core> files via netrw's browser's "x" command (see netrw-x). If present, g:Netrw_corehandler specifies either one or more function references (see Funcref). (the capital g:Netrw... is required its holding a function reference)
g:netrw_ctags ="ctags" The default external program used to create tags
g:netrw_cursor = 2 (default) This option controls the use of the 'cursorline' (cul) and 'cursorcolumn' (cuc) settings by netrw:
Value Thin-Long-Tree Wide =0 u-cul u-cuc u-cul u-cuc =1 u-cul u-cuc cul u-cuc =2 cul u-cuc cul u-cuc =3 cul u-cuc cul cuc =4 cul cuc cul cuc =5 U-cul U-cuc U-cul U-cuc =6 U-cul U-cuc cul U-cuc =7 cul U-cuc cul U-cuc =8 cul U-cuc cul cuc
Where u-cul : user's 'cursorline' initial setting used u-cuc : user's 'cursorcolumn' initial setting used U-cul : user's 'cursorline' current setting used U-cuc : user's 'cursorcolumn' current setting used cul : 'cursorline' will be locally set cuc : 'cursorcolumn' will be locally set
The "initial setting" means the values of the 'cuc' and 'cul' settings in effect when netrw last saw g:netrw_cursor >= 5 or when netrw was initially run.
g:netrw_decompress = { ".gz" : "gunzip" , ".bz2" : "bunzip2" , ".zip" : "unzip" , ".tar" : "tar -xf"} A dictionary mapping suffices to decompression programs.
g:netrw_dirhistmax =10: controls maximum quantity of past history. May be zero to suppress history. (related: netrw-qb netrw-u netrw-U)
g:netrw_dynamic_maxfilenamelen =32: enables dynamic determination of g:netrw_maxfilenamelen, which affects local file long listing.
g:netrw_errorlvl =0: error levels greater than or equal to this are permitted to be displayed 0: notes 1: warnings 2: errors
g:netrw_fastbrowse =0: slow speed directory browsing; never re-uses directory listings; always obtains directory listings. =1: medium speed directory browsing; re-use directory listings only when remote directory browsing. (default value) =2: fast directory browsing; only obtains directory listings when the directory hasn't been seen before (or netrw-ctrl-l is used).
Fast browsing retains old directory listing buffers so that they don't need to be re-acquired. This feature is especially important for remote browsing. However, if a file is introduced or deleted into or from such directories, the old directory buffer becomes out-of-date. One may always refresh such a directory listing with netrw-ctrl-l. This option gives the user the choice of trading off accuracy (ie. up-to-date listing) versus speed.
g:netrw_ffkeep (default: doesn't exist) If this variable exists and is zero, then netrw will not do a save and restore for 'fileformat'.
g:netrw_fname_escape =' ?&;%' Used on filenames before remote reading/writing
g:netrw_ftp_browse_reject ftp can produce a number of errors and warnings that can show up as "directories" and "files" in the listing. This pattern is used to remove such embedded messages. By default its value is: '^total\s\+\d\+$\| ^Trying\s\+\d\+.*$\| ^KERBEROS_V\d rejected\| ^Security extensions not\| No such file\| : connect to address [0-9a-fA-F:]* : No route to host$'
g:netrw_ftp_list_cmd options for passing along to ftp for directory listing. Defaults: unix or g:netrw_cygwin set: : "ls -lF" otherwise "dir"
g:netrw_ftp_sizelist_cmd options for passing along to ftp for directory listing, sorted by size of file. Defaults: unix or g:netrw_cygwin set: : "ls -slF" otherwise "dir"
g:netrw_ftp_timelist_cmd options for passing along to ftp for directory listing, sorted by time of last modification. Defaults: unix or g:netrw_cygwin set: : "ls -tlF" otherwise "dir"
g:netrw_glob_escape ='[]*?`{~$' (unix) ='[]*?`{$' (windows These characters in directory names are escaped before applying glob()
g:netrw_gx ="<cfile>" This option controls how gx (netrw-gx) picks up the text under the cursor. See expand() for possibilities.
g:netrw_hide Controlled by the "a" map (see netrw-a) =0 : show all =1 : show not-hidden files =2 : show hidden files only default: =1
g:netrw_home The home directory for where bookmarks and history are saved (as .netrwbook and .netrwhist). Netrw uses expand() on the string. default: stdpath("data") (see stdpath())
g:netrw_keepdir =1 (default) keep current directory immune from the browsing directory. =0 keep the current directory the same as the browsing directory. The current browsing directory is contained in b:netrw_curdir (also see netrw-cd)
g:netrw_keepj ="keepj" (default) netrw attempts to keep the :jumps table unaffected. ="" netrw will not use :keepjumps with exceptions only for the saving/restoration of position.
g:netrw_list_cmd command for listing remote directories default: (if ssh is executable) "ssh HOSTNAME ls -FLa"
g:netrw_list_cmd_options If this variable exists, then its contents are appended to the g:netrw_list_cmd. For example, use "2>/dev/null" to get rid of banner messages on unix systems.
g:netrw_liststyle Set the default listing style: = 0: thin listing (one file per line) = 1: long listing (one file per line with time stamp information and file size) = 2: wide listing (multiple files in columns) = 3: tree style listing
g:netrw_list_hide comma-separated pattern list for hiding files Patterns are regular expressions (see regexp) There's some special support for git-ignore files: you may add the output from the helper function 'netrw_gitignore#Hide() automatically hiding all gitignored files. For more details see netrw-gitignore. default: ""
let g:netrw_list_hide= '.*\.swp$'
let g:netrw_list_hide= netrw_gitignore#Hide() .. '.*\.swp$'
g:netrw_localcopycmd ="cp" Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin =expand("$COMSPEC") Windows Copies marked files (netrw-mf) to target directory (netrw-mt, netrw-mc)
g:netrw_localcopycmdopt ='' Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin =' \c copy' Windows Options for the g:netrw_localcopycmd
g:netrw_localcopydircmd ="cp" Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin =expand("$COMSPEC") Windows Copies directories to target directory. (netrw-mc, netrw-mt)
g:netrw_localcopydircmdopt =" -R" Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin =" /c xcopy /e /c /h/ /i /k" Windows Options for g:netrw_localcopydircmd
g:netrw_localmkdir ="mkdir" Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin =expand("$COMSPEC") Windows command for making a local directory
g:netrw_localmkdiropt ="" Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin =" /c mkdir" Windows Options for g:netrw_localmkdir
g:netrw_localmovecmd ="mv" Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin =expand("$COMSPEC") Windows Moves marked files (netrw-mf) to target directory (netrw-mt, netrw-mm)
g:netrw_localmovecmdopt ="" Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin =" /c move" Windows Options for g:netrw_localmovecmd
g:netrw_maxfilenamelen =32 by default, selected so as to make long listings fit on 80 column displays. If your screen is wider, and you have file or directory names longer than 32 bytes, you may set this option to keep listings columnar.
g:netrw_mkdir_cmd command for making a remote directory via ssh (also see g:netrw_remote_mkdir) default: "ssh USEPORT HOSTNAME mkdir"
g:netrw_mousemaps =1 (default) enables mouse buttons while browsing to: leftmouse : open file/directory shift-leftmouse : mark file middlemouse : same as P rightmouse : remove file/directory =0: disables mouse maps
g:netrw_nobeval doesn't exist (default) If this variable exists, then balloon evaluation will be suppressed (see 'ballooneval')
g:netrw_sizestyle not defined: actual bytes (default) ="b" : actual bytes (default) ="h" : human-readable (ex. 5k, 4m, 3g) uses 1000 base ="H" : human-readable (ex. 5K, 4M, 3G) uses 1024 base The long listing (netrw-i) and query-file maps (netrw-qf) will display file size using the specified style.
g:netrw_usetab if this variable exists and is non-zero, then the <tab> map supporting shrinking/expanding a Lexplore or netrw window will be enabled. (see netrw-c-tab)
g:netrw_remote_mkdir command for making a remote directory via ftp (also see g:netrw_mkdir_cmd) default: "mkdir"
g:netrw_retmap if it exists and is set to one, then: * if in a netrw-selected file, AND * no normal-mode <2-leftmouse> mapping exists, then the <2-leftmouse> will be mapped for easy return to the netrw browser window. example: click once to select and open a file, double-click to return.
Note that one may instead choose to: * let g:netrw_retmap= 1, AND * nmap <silent> YourChoice <Plug>NetrwReturn and have another mapping instead of <2-leftmouse> to invoke the return.
You may also use the :Rexplore command to do the same thing.
default: =0
g:netrw_rm_cmd command for removing remote files default: "ssh USEPORT HOSTNAME rm"
g:netrw_rmdir_cmd command for removing remote directories default: "ssh USEPORT HOSTNAME rmdir"
g:netrw_rmf_cmd command for removing remote softlinks default: "ssh USEPORT HOSTNAME rm -f"
g:netrw_servername use this variable to provide a name for netrw-ctrl-r to use for its server. default: "NETRWSERVER"
g:netrw_sort_by sort by "name", "time", "size", or "exten". default: "name"
g:netrw_sort_direction sorting direction: "normal" or "reverse" default: "normal"
g:netrw_sort_options sorting is done using :sort; this variable's value is appended to the sort command. Thus one may ignore case, for example, with the following in your .vimrc:
let g:netrw_sort_options="i"
default: ""
g:netrw_sort_sequence when sorting by name, first sort by the comma-separated pattern sequence. Note that any filigree added to indicate filetypes should be accounted for in your pattern. default: '[\/]$,,\.bak$,\.o$,\.h$, \.info$,\.swp$,\.obj$'
g:netrw_special_syntax If true, then certain files will be shown using special syntax in the browser:
netrwBak : *.bak netrwCompress: *.gz *.bz2 *.Z *.zip netrwCoreDump: core.\d\+ netrwData : *.dat netrwDoc : .doc,.txt,*.pdf, .pdf,.docx netrwHdr : *.h netrwLex : *.l *.lex netrwLib : *.a *.so *.lib *.dll netrwMakefile: [mM]akefile *.mak netrwObj : *.o *.obj netrwPix : .bmp,.fit,.fits,.gif, .jpg,.jpeg,.pcx,.ppc .pgm,.png,.psd,.rgb .tif,.xbm,*.xcf netrwTags : tags ANmenu ANtags netrwTilde : * netrwTmp : tmp* *tmp netrwYacc : *.y
In addition, those groups mentioned in 'suffixes' are also added to the special file highlighting group. These syntax highlighting groups are linked to netrwGray or Folded by default (see hl-Folded), but one may put lines like
hi link netrwCompress Visual
into one's <.vimrc> to use one's own preferences. Alternatively, one may put such specifications into
The netrwGray highlighting is set up by netrw when
* netrwGray has not been previously
* the gui is running
As an example, I myself use a dark-background colorscheme with the following in .vim/after/syntax/netrw.vim:
hi netrwCompress term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=10 guifg=green  ctermbg=0 guibg=black
hi netrwData          term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=9 guifg=blue ctermbg=0 guibg=black
hi netrwHdr          term=NONE cterm=NONE,italic gui=NONE guifg=SeaGreen1
hi netrwLex          term=NONE cterm=NONE,italic gui=NONE guifg=SeaGreen1
hi netrwYacc          term=NONE cterm=NONE,italic gui=NONE guifg=SeaGreen1
hi netrwLib          term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=14 guifg=yellow
hi netrwObj          term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=12 guifg=red
hi netrwTilde          term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=12 guifg=red
hi netrwTmp          term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=12 guifg=red
hi netrwTags          term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=12 guifg=red
hi netrwDoc          term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=220 ctermbg=27 guifg=yellow2 guibg=Blue3
hi netrwSymLink  term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=220 ctermbg=27 guifg=grey60
g:netrw_ssh_browse_reject ssh can sometimes produce unwanted lines, messages, banners, and whatnot that one doesn't want masquerading as "directories" and "files". Use this pattern to remove such embedded messages. By default its value is: '^total\s\+\d\+$'
g:netrw_ssh_cmd One may specify an executable command to use instead of ssh for remote actions such as listing, file removal, etc. default: ssh
g:netrw_suppress_gx_mesg =1 : browsers sometimes produce messages which are normally unwanted intermixed with the page. However, when using links, for example, those messages are what the browser produces. By setting this option to 0, netrw will not suppress browser messages.
g:netrw_tmpfile_escape =' &;' escape() is applied to all temporary files to escape these characters.
g:netrw_timefmt specify format string to vim's strftime(). The default, "%c", is "the preferred date and time representation for the current locale" according to my manpage entry for strftime(); however, not all are satisfied with it. Some alternatives: "%a %d %b %Y %T", " %a %Y-%m-%d %I-%M-%S %p" default: "%c"
g:netrw_use_noswf netrw normally avoids writing swapfiles for browser buffers. However, under some systems this apparently is causing nasty ml_get errors to appear; if you're getting ml_get errors, try putting let g:netrw_use_noswf= 0 in your .vimrc. default: 1
g:netrw_winsize specify initial size of new windows made with "o" (see netrw-o), "v" (see netrw-v), :Hexplore or :Vexplore. The g:netrw_winsize is an integer describing the percentage of the current netrw buffer's window to be used for the new window. If g:netrw_winsize is less than zero, then the absolute value of g:netrw_winsize will be used to specify the quantity of lines or columns for the new window. If g:netrw_winsize is zero, then a normal split will be made (ie. 'equalalways' will take effect, for example). default: 50 (for 50%)
g:netrw_wiw =1 specifies the minimum window width to use when shrinking a netrw/Lexplore window (see netrw-c-tab).
g:netrw_xstrlen Controls how netrw computes string lengths, including multi-byte characters' string length. (thanks to N Weibull, T Mechelynck) =0: uses Vim's built-in strlen() =1: number of codepoints (Latin a + combining circumflex is two codepoints) (DEFAULT) =2: number of spacing codepoints (Latin a + combining circumflex is one spacing codepoint; a hard tab is one; wide and narrow CJK are one each; etc.) =3: virtual length (counting tabs as anything between 1 and 'tabstop', wide CJK as 2 rather than 1, Arabic alif as zero when immediately preceded by lam, one otherwise, etc)
g:NetrwTopLvlMenu This variable specifies the top level menu name; by default, it's "Netrw.". If you wish to change this, do so in your .vimrc.
Netrw has been designed to handle user options by saving them, setting the options to something that's compatible with netrw's needs, and then restoring them. However, the autochdir option:
:set acd
is problematic. Autochdir sets the current directory to that containing the file you edit; this apparently also applies to directories. In other words, autochdir sets the current directory to that containing the "file" (even if that "file" is itself a directory).
With the NetrwSettings.vim plugin,
will bring up a window with the many variables that netrw uses for its settings. You may change any of their values; when you save the file, the settings therein will be used. One may also press "?" on any of the lines for help on what each of the variables do.
If there are no marked files:
When browsing a remote directory, one may obtain a file under the cursor (ie. get a copy on your local machine, but not edit it) by pressing the O key.
If there are marked files:
The marked files will be obtained (ie. a copy will be transferred to your local machine, but not set up for editing).
Only ftp and scp are supported for this operation (but since these two are available for browsing, that shouldn't be a problem). The status bar will then show, on its right hand side, a message like "Obtaining filename". The statusline will be restored after the transfer is complete.
Netrw can also "obtain" a file using the local browser. Netrw's display of a directory is not necessarily the same as Vim's "current directory", unless g:netrw_keepdir is set to 0 in the user's <.vimrc>. One may select a file using the local browser (by putting the cursor on it) and pressing "O" will then "obtain" the file; ie. copy it to Vim's current directory.
Related topics: * To see what the current directory is, use :pwd * To make the currently browsed directory the current directory, see netrw-cd * To automatically make the currently browsed directory the current directory, see g:netrw_keepdir.
netrw-newfile netrw-createfile OPEN A NEW FILE IN NETRW'S CURRENT DIRECTORY netrw-% {{{2
To open a new file in netrw's current directory, press "%". This map will query the user for a new filename; an empty file by that name will be placed in the netrw's current directory (ie. b:netrw_curdir).
If Lexplore (netrw-:Lexplore) is in use, the new file will be generated in the g:netrw_chgwin window.
Related topics: netrw-d
One may use a preview window by using the "p" key when the cursor is atop the desired filename to be previewed. The display will then split to show both the browser (where the cursor will remain) and the file (see :pedit). By default, the split will be taken horizontally; one may use vertical splitting if one has set g:netrw_preview first.
An interesting set of netrw settings is:
let g:netrw_preview   = 1
let g:netrw_liststyle = 3
let g:netrw_winsize   = 30
These will:
1. Make vertical splitting the default for previewing files 2. Make the default listing style "tree" 3. When a vertical preview window is opened, the directory listing will use only 30% of the columns available; the rest of the window is used for the preview window.
Related: if you like this idea, you may also find :Lexplore (netrw-:Lexplore) or g:netrw_chgwin of interest
To edit a file or directory under the cursor in the previously used (last accessed) window (see :he CTRL-W_p), press a "P". If there's only one window, then the one window will be horizontally split (by default).
If there's more than one window, the previous window will be re-used on the selected file/directory. If the previous window's associated buffer has been modified, and there's only one window with that buffer, then the user will be asked if they wish to save the buffer first (yes, no, or cancel).
Related Actions netrw-cr netrw-o netrw-t netrw-v Associated setting variables: g:netrw_alto control above/below splitting g:netrw_altv control right/left splitting g:netrw_preview control horizontal vs vertical splitting g:netrw_winsize control initial sizing
To refresh either a local or remote directory listing, press ctrl-l (<c-l>) or hit the <cr> when atop the ./ directory entry in the listing. One may also refresh a local directory by using ":e .".
One may toggle between normal and reverse sorting order by pressing the "r" key.
Related topics: netrw-s Associated setting variable: g:netrw_sort_direction
If there are no marked files: (see netrw-mf)
Renaming files and directories involves moving the cursor to the file/directory to be moved (renamed) and pressing "R". You will then be queried for what you want the file/directory to be renamed to. You may select a range of lines with the "V" command (visual selection), and then press "R"; you will be queried for each file as to what you want it renamed to.
If there are marked files: (see netrw-mf)
Marked files will be renamed (moved). You will be queried as above in order to specify where you want the file/directory to be moved.
If you answer a renaming query with a "s/frompattern/topattern/", then subsequent files on the marked file list will be renamed by taking each name, applying that substitute, and renaming each file to the result. As an example :
mr  [query: reply with *.c]
R   [query: reply with s/^\(.*\)\.c$/\1.cpp/]
This example will mark all "*.c" files and then rename them to "*.cpp" files. Netrw will protect you from overwriting local files without confirmation, but not remote ones.
The ctrl-X character has special meaning for renaming files:
<c-x>      : a single ctrl-x tells netrw to ignore the portion of the response
             lying between the last '/' and the ctrl-x.
<c-x><c-x> : a pair of contiguous ctrl-x's tells netrw to ignore any
             portion of the string preceding the double ctrl-x's.
Note that moving files is a dangerous operation; copies are safer. That's because a "move" for remote files is actually a copy + delete -- and if the copy fails and the delete succeeds you may lose the file. Use at your own risk.
The g:netrw_rename_cmd variable is used to implement remote renaming. By default its value is:
One may rename a block of files and directories by selecting them with V (linewise-visual) when using thin style.
See cmdline-editing for more on how to edit the command line; in particular, you'll find <ctrl-f> (initiates cmdline window editing) and <ctrl-c> (uses the command line under the cursor) useful in conjunction with the R command.
One may select the sorting style by name, time, or (file) size. The "s" map allows one to circulate amongst the three choices; the directory listing will automatically be refreshed to reflect the selected style.
Related topics: netrw-r netrw-S Associated setting variables: g:netrw_sort_by g:netrw_sort_sequence
One may select a netrw window for editing with the "C" mapping, using the :NetrwC [win#] command, or by setting g:netrw_chgwin to the selected window number. Subsequent selection of a file to edit (netrw-cr) will use that window.
* C : by itself, will select the current window holding a netrw buffer for subsequent editing via netrw-cr. The C mapping is only available while in netrw buffers.
* [count]C : the count will be used as the window number to be used for subsequent editing via netrw-cr.
* :NetrwC will set g:netrw_chgwin to the current window
* :NetrwC win# will set g:netrw_chgwin to the specified window number
let g:netrw_chgwin= -1
will restore the default editing behavior (ie. subsequent editing will use the current window).
Related topics: netrw-cr g:netrw_browse_split Associated setting variables: g:netrw_chgwin
The <c-tab> key will toggle a netrw or :Lexplore window's width, but only if g:netrw_usetab exists and is non-zero (and, of course, only if your terminal supports differentiating <c-tab> from a plain <tab>).
* If the current window is a netrw window, toggle its width (between g:netrw_wiw and its original width)
* Else if there is a :Lexplore window in the current tab, toggle its width
* Else bring up a :Lexplore window
If g:netrw_usetab exists and is zero, or if there is a pre-existing mapping for <c-tab>, then the <c-tab> will not be mapped. One may map something other than a <c-tab>, too: (but you'll still need to have had g:netrw_usetab set).
nmap <unique> (whatever)        <Plug>NetrwShrink
Related topics: :Lexplore Associated setting variable: g:netrw_usetab
One may make customized user maps. Specify a variable, g:Netrw_UserMaps, to hold a List of lists of keymap strings and function names:
When netrw is setting up maps for a netrw buffer, if g:Netrw_UserMaps exists, then the internal function netrw#UserMaps(islocal) is called. This function goes through all the entries in the g:Netrw_UserMaps list:
* sets up maps:
nno <buffer> <silent> KEYMAP-SEQUENCE
:call s:UserMaps(islocal,"ExampleUserMapFunc")
* refreshes if result from that function call is the string "refresh" * if the result string is not "", then that string will be executed (:exe result) * if the result is a List, then the above two actions on results will be taken for every string in the result List
The user function is passed one argument; it resembles
fun! ExampleUserMapFunc(islocal)
where a:islocal is 1 if its a local-directory system call or 0 when remote-directory system call.
netrw-call netrw-expose netrw-modify Use netrw#Expose("varname") to access netrw-internal (script-local) variables. Use netrw#Modify("varname",newvalue) to change netrw-internal variables. Use netrw#Call("funcname"[,args]) to call a netrw-internal function with specified arguments.
Example: Get a copy of netrw's marked file list:
let netrwmarkfilelist= netrw#Expose("netrwmarkfilelist")
Example: Modify the value of netrw's marked file list:
call netrw#Modify("netrwmarkfilelist",[])
Example: Clear netrw's marked file list via a mapping on gu
" ExampleUserMap: {{{2
fun! ExampleUserMap(islocal)
  call netrw#Modify("netrwmarkfilelist",[])
  call netrw#Modify('netrwmarkfilemtch_{bufnr("%")}',"")
  let retval= ["refresh"]
  return retval
let g:Netrw_UserMaps= [["gu","ExampleUserMap"]]
10. Problems and Fixes netrw-problems {{{1
(This section is likely to grow as I get feedback) (also see netrw-debug) netrw-p1 P1. I use Windows, and my network browsing with ftp doesn't sort by {{{2 time or size! -or- The remote system is a Windows server; why don't I get sorts by time or size?
Windows' ftp has a minimal support for ls (ie. it doesn't accept sorting options). It doesn't support the -F which gives an explanatory character (ABC/ for "ABC is a directory"). Netrw then uses "dir" to get both its thin and long listings. If you think your ftp does support a full-up ls, put the following into your <.vimrc>:
let g:netrw_ftp_list_cmd    = "ls -lF"
let g:netrw_ftp_timelist_cmd= "ls -tlF"
let g:netrw_ftp_sizelist_cmd= "ls -slF"
Alternatively, if you have cygwin on your Windows box, put into your <.vimrc>:
let g:netrw_cygwin= 1
This problem also occurs when the remote system is Windows. In this situation, the various g:netrw_ftp_[time|size]list_cmds are as shown above, but the remote system will not correctly modify its listing behavior.
netrw-p2 P2. I tried rcp://user@host/ (or protocol other than ftp) and netrw {{{2 used ssh! That wasn't what I asked for...
Netrw has two methods for browsing remote directories: ssh and ftp. Unless you specify ftp specifically, ssh is used. When it comes time to do download a file (not just a directory listing), netrw will use the given protocol to do so.
netrw-p3 P3. I would like long listings to be the default. {{{2
Put the following statement into your vimrc:
let g:netrw_liststyle= 1
Check out netrw-browser-var for more customizations that you can set.
netrw-p4 P4. My times come up oddly in local browsing {{{2
Does your system's strftime() accept the "%c" to yield dates such as "Sun Apr 27 11:49:23 1997"? If not, do a "man strftime" and find out what option should be used. Then put it into your vimrc:
let g:netrw_timefmt= "%X"  (where X is the option)
netrw-p5 P5. I want my current directory to track my browsing. {{{2 How do I do that?
Put the following line in your vimrc:
let g:netrw_keepdir= 0
netrw-p6 P6. I use Chinese (or other non-ascii) characters in my filenames, {{{2 and netrw (Explore, Sexplore, Hexplore, etc) doesn't display them!
(taken from an answer provided by Wu Yongwei on the vim mailing list) I now see the problem. Your code page is not 936, right? Vim seems only able to open files with names that are valid in the current code page, as are many other applications that do not use the Unicode version of Windows APIs. This is an OS-related issue. You should not have such problems when the system locale uses UTF-8, such as modern Linux distros.
(...it is one more reason to recommend that people use utf-8!)
netrw-p7 P7. I'm getting "ssh is not executable on your system" -- what do I {{{2 do?
(Dudley Fox) Most people I know use putty for windows ssh. It is a free ssh/telnet application. You can read more about it here:
(Marlin Unruh) This program also works for me. It's a single executable, so he/she can copy it into the Windows\System32 folder and create a shortcut to it.
(Dudley Fox) You might also wish to consider plink, as it sounds most similar to what you are looking for. plink is an application in the putty suite.
(Vissale Neang) Maybe you can try OpenSSH for windows, which can be obtained from:
It doesn't need the full Cygwin package.
(Antoine Mechelynck) For individual Unix-like programs needed for work in a native-Windows environment, I recommend getting them from the GnuWin32 project on sourceforge if it has them:
Unlike Cygwin, which sets up a Unix-like virtual machine on top of Windows, GnuWin32 is a rewrite of Unix utilities with Windows system calls, and its programs works quite well in the cmd.exe "Dos box".
(dave) Download WinSCP and use that to connect to the server. In Preferences > Editors, set gvim as your editor:
Click "Add..."
Set External Editor (adjust path as needed, include the quotes and !.! at the end): "c:\Program Files\Vim\vim82\gvim.exe" !.!
Check that the filetype in the box below is {asterisk}.{asterisk} (all files), or whatever types you want (cec: change {asterisk} to * ; I had to write it that way because otherwise the helptags system thinks it's a tag)
Make sure it's at the top of the listbox (click it, then click "Up" if it's not) If using the Norton Commander style, you just have to hit <F4> to edit a file in a local copy of gvim.
(Vit Gottwald) How to generate public/private key and save public key it on server:
                      (8.3 Getting ready for public key authentication)
How to use a private key with "pscp":
                      (5.2.4 Using public key authentication with PSCP)
(Ben Schmidt) I find the ssh included with cwRsync is brilliant, and install cwRsync or cwRsyncServer on most Windows systems I come across these days. I guess COPSSH, packed by the same person, is probably even better for use as just ssh on Windows, and probably includes sftp, etc. which I suspect the cwRsync doesn't, though it might
(cec) To make proper use of these suggestions above, you will need to modify the following user-settable variables in your .vimrc:
The first one (g:netrw_ssh_cmd) is the most important; most of the others will use the string in g:netrw_ssh_cmd by default.
netrw-p8 netrw-ml_get P8. I'm browsing, changing directory, and bang! ml_get errors {{{2 appear and I have to kill vim. Any way around this?
Normally netrw attempts to avoid writing swapfiles for its temporary directory buffers. However, on some systems this attempt appears to be causing ml_get errors to appear. Please try setting g:netrw_use_noswf to 0 in your <.vimrc>:
let g:netrw_use_noswf= 0
netrw-p9 P9. I'm being pestered with "[something] is a directory" and {{{2 "Press ENTER or type command to continue" prompts...
The "[something] is a directory" prompt is issued by Vim, not by netrw, and there appears to be no way to work around it. Coupled with the default cmdheight of 1, this message causes the "Press ENTER..." prompt. So: read hit-enter; I also suggest that you set your 'cmdheight' to 2 (or more) in your <.vimrc> file.
netrw-p10 P10. I want to have two windows; a thin one on the left and my {{{2 editing window on the right. How may I accomplish this?
You probably want netrw running as in a side window. If so, you will likely find that ":[N]Lexplore" does what you want. The optional "[N]" allows you to select the quantity of columns you wish the :Lexplorer window to start with (see g:netrw_winsize for how this parameter works).
Previous solution:
* Put the following line in your <.vimrc>: let g:netrw_altv = 1 * Edit the current directory: :e . * Select some file, press v * Resize the windows as you wish (see CTRL-W_< and CTRL-W_>). If you're using gvim, you can drag the separating bar with your mouse. * When you want a new file, use ctrl-w h to go back to the netrw browser, select a file, then press P (see CTRL-W_h and netrw-P). If you're using gvim, you can press <leftmouse> in the browser window and then press the <middlemouse> to select the file.
netrw-p11 P11. My directory isn't sorting correctly, or unwanted letters are {{{2 appearing in the listed filenames, or things aren't lining up properly in the wide listing, ...
This may be due to an encoding problem. I myself usually use utf-8, but really only use ascii (ie. bytes from 32-126). Multibyte encodings use two (or more) bytes per character. You may need to change g:netrw_sepchr and/or g:netrw_xstrlen.
netrw-p12 P12. I'm a Windows + putty + ssh user, and when I attempt to {{{2 browse, the directories are missing trailing "/"s so netrw treats them as file transfers instead of as attempts to browse subdirectories. How may I fix this?
(mikeyao) If you want to use vim via ssh and putty under Windows, try combining the use of pscp/psftp with plink. pscp/psftp will be used to connect and plink will be used to execute commands on the server, for example: list files and directory using 'ls'.
These are the settings I use to do this:
" list files, it's the key setting, if you haven't set,
" you will get a blank buffer
let g:netrw_list_cmd = "plink HOSTNAME ls -Fa"
" if you haven't add putty directory in system path, you should
" specify scp/sftp command.  For examples:
"let g:netrw_sftp_cmd = "d:\\dev\\putty\\PSFTP.exe"
"let g:netrw_scp_cmd = "d:\\dev\\putty\\PSCP.exe"
netrw-p13 P13. I would like to speed up writes using Nwrite and scp/ssh {{{2 style connections. How? (Thomer M. Gil)
Try using ssh's ControlMaster and ControlPath (see the ssh_config man page) to share multiple ssh connections over a single network connection. That cuts out the cryptographic handshake on each file write, sometimes speeding it up by an order of magnitude. (see http://thomer.com/howtos/netrw_ssh.html) (included by permission)
Add the following to your ~/.ssh/config:
# you change "*" to the hostname you care about
Host *
  ControlMaster auto
  ControlPath /tmp/%r@%h:%p
Then create an ssh connection to the host and leave it running:
ssh -N host.domain.com
Now remotely open a file with Vim's Netrw and enjoy the zippiness:
vim scp://host.domain.com//home/user/.bashrc
netrw-p14 P14. How may I use a double-click instead of netrw's usual single {{{2 click to open a file or directory? (Ben Fritz)
First, disable netrw's mapping with
let g:netrw_mousemaps= 0
and then create a netrw buffer only mapping in $HOME/.vim/after/ftplugin/netrw.vim:
nmap <buffer> <2-leftmouse> <CR>
Note that setting g:netrw_mousemaps to zero will turn off all netrw's mouse mappings, not just the <leftmouse> one. (see g:netrw_mousemaps)
netrw-p15 P15. When editing remote files (ex. :e ftp://hostname/path/file), {{{2 under Windows I get an E303 message complaining that its unable to open a swap file.
(romainl) It looks like you are starting Vim from a protected directory. Start netrw from your $HOME or other writable directory.
netrw-p16 P16. Netrw is closing buffers on its own. {{{2 What steps will reproduce the problem? 1. :Explore, navigate directories, open a file 2. :Explore, open another file 3. Buffer opened in step 1 will be closed. o What is the expected output? What do you see instead? I expect both buffers to exist, but only the last one does.
(Lance) Problem is caused by "set autochdir" in .vimrc. (drchip) I am able to duplicate this problem with 'acd' set. It appears that the buffers are not exactly closed; a ":ls!" will show them (although ":ls" does not).
netrw-P17 P17. How to locally edit a file that's only available via {{{2 another server accessible via ssh? See http://stackoverflow.com/questions/12469645/ "Using Vim to Remotely Edit A File on ServerB Only Accessible From ServerA"
netrw-P18 P18. How do I get numbering on in directory listings? {{{2 With g:netrw_bufsettings, you can control netrw's buffer settings; try putting
let g:netrw_bufsettings="noma nomod nu nobl nowrap ro nornu"
in your .vimrc. If you'd like to have relative numbering instead, try
let g:netrw_bufsettings="noma nomod nonu nobl nowrap ro rnu"
netrw-P19 P19. How may I have gvim start up showing a directory listing? {{{2 Try putting the following code snippet into your .vimrc:
augroup VimStartup
  au VimEnter * if expand("%") == "" && argc() == 0 &&
  \ (v:servername =~ 'GVIM\d*' || v:servername == "")
  \ | e . | endif
augroup END
You may use Lexplore instead of "e" if you're so inclined. This snippet assumes that you have client-server enabled (ie. a "huge" vim version).
netrw-P20 P20. I've made a directory (or file) with an accented character, {{{2 but netrw isn't letting me enter that directory/read that file:
Its likely that the shell or o/s is using a different encoding than you have vim (netrw) using. A patch to vim supporting "systemencoding" may address this issue in the future; for now, just have netrw use the proper encoding. For example:
au FileType netrw set enc=latin1
netrw-P21 P21. I get an error message when I try to copy or move a file: {{{2
**error** (netrw) tried using g:netrw_localcopycmd<cp>; it doesn't work!
What's wrong?
Netrw uses several system level commands to do things (see
You may need to adjust the default commands for one or more of these commands by setting them properly in your .vimrc. Another source of difficulty is that these commands use vim's local directory, which may not be the same as the browsing directory shown by netrw (see g:netrw_keepdir).
Step 1: check that the problem you've encountered hasn't already been resolved by obtaining a copy of the latest (often developmental) netrw at:
The <netrw.vim> script is typically installed on systems as something like:
        (see output of :echo &rtp)
which is loaded automatically at startup (assuming :set nocp). If you installed a new netrw, then it will be located at
Step 2: assuming that you've installed the latest version of netrw, check that your problem is really due to netrw. Create a file called netrw.vimrc with the following contents:
set nocp
so $HOME/.vim/plugin/netrwPlugin.vim
Then run netrw as follows:
vim -u netrw.vimrc --noplugins -i NONE [some path here]
Perform whatever netrw commands you need to, and check that the problem is still present. This procedure sidesteps any issues due to personal .vimrc settings, .viminfo file, and other plugins. If the problem does not appear, then you need to determine which setting in your .vimrc is causing the conflict with netrw or which plugin(s) is/are involved.
Step 3: If the problem still is present, then get a debugging trace from netrw:
1. Get the <Decho.vim> script, available as:
Decho.vim is provided as a "vimball". You should edit the Decho.vba.gz file and source it in:
vim Decho.vba.gz
:so %
2. To turn on debug tracing in netrw, then edit the <netrw.vim> file by typing:
vim netrw.vim
To restore to normal non-debugging behavior, re-edit <netrw.vim> and type
vim netrw.vim
This command, provided by <Decho.vim>, will comment out all Decho-debugging statements (Dfunc(), Dret(), Decho(), Dredir()).
3. Then bring up vim and attempt to evoke the problem by doing a transfer or doing some browsing. A set of messages should appear concerning the steps that <netrw.vim> took in attempting to read/write your file over the network in a separate tab or server vim window.
Change the netrw.vimrc file to include the Decho plugin:
set nocp
so $HOME/.vim/plugin/Decho.vim
so $HOME/.vim/plugin/netrwPlugin.vim
You should continue to run vim with
vim -u netrw.vimrc --noplugins -i NONE [some path here]
to avoid entanglements with options and other plugins.
To save the file: under linux, the output will be in a separate remote server window; in it, just save the file with
:w! DBG
Under a vim that doesn't support clientserver, your debugging output will appear in another tab:
:set bt=
:w! DBG
Furthermore, it'd be helpful if you would type
:Dsep <command>
where <command> is the command you're about to type next, thereby making it easier to associate which part of the debugging trace is due to which command.
Please send that information to <netrw.vim>'s maintainer along with the o/s you're using and the vim version that you're using (see :version) (remove the embedded NOSPAM first)
[email protected]
v172: Sep 02, 2021 * (Bram Moolenaar) Changed "l:go" to "go" * (Bram Moolenaar) no need for "b" in netrw-safe guioptions Nov 15, 2021 * removed netrw_localrm and netrw_localrmdir references Aug 18, 2022 * (Miguel Barro) improving compatability with powershell v171: Oct 09, 2020 * included code in s:NetrwOptionsSafe() to allow 'bh' to be set to delete when rather than hide when g:netrw_fastbrowse was zero. * Installed g:netrw_clipboard setting * Installed option bypass for 'guioptions' a/A settings * Changed popup_beval() to popup_atcursor() in netrw#ErrorMsg (lacygoill). Apparently popup_beval doesn't reliably close the popup when the mouse is moved. * VimEnter() now using win_execute to examine buffers for an attempt to open a directory. Avoids issues with popups/terminal from command line. (lacygoill) Jun 28, 2021 * (zeertzjq) provided a patch for use of xmap,xno instead of vmap,vno in netrwPlugin.vim. Avoids entanglement with select mode. Jul 14, 2021 * Fixed problem addressed by tst976; opening a file using tree mode, going up a directory, and opening a file there was opening the file in the wrong directory. Jul 28, 2021 * (Ingo Karkat) provided a patch fixing an E488 error with netrwPlugin.vim (occurred for vim versions < 8.02) v170: Mar 11, 2020 * (reported by Reiner Herrmann) netrw+tree would not hide with the ^\..* pattern correctly. * (Marcin Szamotulski) NetrwOptionRestore did not restore options correctly that had a single quote in the option string. Apr 13, 2020 * implemented error handling via popup windows (see popup_beval()) Apr 30, 2020 * (reported by Manatsu Takahashi) while using Lexplore, a modified file could be overwritten. Sol'n: will not overwrite, but will emit an E37 (although one cannot add an ! to override) Jun 07, 2020 * (reported by Jo Totland) repeatedly invoking :Lexplore and quitting it left unused hidden buffers. Netrw will now set netrw buffers created by :Lexplore to 'bh'=wipe. v169: Dec 20, 2019 * (reported by amkarthik) that netrw's x (netrw-x) would throw an error when attempting to open a local directory. v168: Dec 12, 2019 * scp timeout error message not reported, hopefully now fixed (Shane Xb Qian) v167: Nov 29, 2019 * netrw does a save&restore on @* and @+. That causes problems with the clipboard. Now restores occurs only if @* or @+ have been changed. * netrw will change @* or @+ less often. Never if I happen to have caught all the operations that modify the unnamed register (which also writes @*). * Modified hiding behavior so that "s" will not ignore hiding. v166: Nov 06, 2019 * Removed a space from a nmap for "-" * Numerous debugging statement changes v163: Dec 05, 2017 * (Cristi Balan) reported that a setting ('sel') was left changed * (Holger Mitschke) reported a problem with saving and restoring history. Fixed. * Hopefully I fixed a nasty bug that caused a file rename to wipe out a buffer that it should not have wiped out. * (Holger Mitschke) amended this help file with additional g:netrw_special_syntax items * Prioritized wget over curl for g:netrw_http_cmd v162: Sep 19, 2016 * (haya14busa) pointed out two syntax errors with a patch; these are now fixed. Oct 26, 2016 * I started using mate-terminal and found that x and gx (netrw-x and netrw-gx) were no longer working. Fixed (using atril when $DESKTOP_SESSION is "mate"). Nov 04, 2016 * (Martin Vuille) pointed out that @+ was being restored with keepregstar rather than keepregplus. Nov 09, 2016 * Broke apart the command from the options, mostly for Windows. Introduced new netrw settings: g:netrw_localcopycmdopt g:netrw_localcopydircmdopt g:netrw_localmkdiropt g:netrw_localmovecmdopt Nov 21, 2016 * (mattn) provided a patch for preview; swapped winwidth() with winheight() Nov 22, 2016 * (glacambre) reported that files containing spaces weren't being obtained properly via scp. Fix: apparently using single quotes such as with "file name" wasn't enough; the spaces inside the quotes also had to be escaped (ie. "file\ name"). * Also fixed obtain (netrw-O) to be able to obtain files with spaces in their names Dec 20, 2016 * (xc1427) Reported that using "I" (netrw-I) when atop "Hiding" in the banner also caused the active-banner hiding control to occur Jan 03, 2017 * (Enno Nagel) reported that attempting to apply netrw to a directory that was without read permission caused a syntax error. Jan 13, 2017 * (Ingo Karkat) provided a patch which makes using netrw#Call() better. Now returns value of internal routines return, for example. Jan 13, 2017 * (Ingo Karkat) changed netrw#FileUrlRead to use :edit instead of :read. I also changed the routine name to netrw#FileUrlEdit. Jan 16, 2017 * (Sayem) reported a problem where :Lexplore could generate a new listing buffer and window instead of toggling the netrw display. Unfortunately, the directions for eliciting the problem weren't complete, so I may or may not have fixed that issue. Feb 06, 2017 * Implemented cb and cB. Changed "c" to "cd". (see netrw-cb, netrw-cB, and netrw-cd) Mar 21, 2017 * previously, netrw would specify (safe) settings even when the setting was already safe for netrw. Netrw now attempts to leave such already-netrw-safe settings alone. (affects s:NetrwOptionRestore() and s:NetrwSafeOptions(); also introduced s:NetrwRestoreSetting()) Jun 26, 2017 * (Christian Brabandt) provided a patch to allow curl to follow redirects (ie. -L option) Jun 26, 2017 * (Callum Howard) reported a problem with :Lexpore not removing the Lexplore window after a change-directory Aug 30, 2017 * (Ingo Karkat) one cannot switch to the previously edited file (e.g. with CTRL-^) after editing a file:// URL. Patch to have a "keepalt" included. Oct 17, 2017 * (Adam Faryna) reported that gn (netrw-gn) did not work on directories in the current tree v157: Apr 20, 2016 * (Nicola) had set up a "nmap <expr> ..." with a function that returned a 0 while silently invoking a shell command. The shell command activated a ShellCmdPost event which in turn called s:LocalBrowseRefresh(). That looks over all netrw buffers for changes needing refreshes. However, inside a :map-<expr>, tab and window changes are disallowed. Fixed. (affects netrw's s:LocalBrowseRefresh()) * g:netrw_localrmdir not used any more, but the relevant patch that causes delete() to take over was #1107 (not #1109). * expand() is now used on g:netrw_home; consequently, g:netrw_home may now use environment variables * s:NetrwLeftmouse and s:NetrwCLeftmouse will return without doing anything if invoked when inside a non-netrw window Jun 15, 2016 * gx now calls netrw#GX() which returns the word under the cursor. The new wrinkle: if one is in a netrw buffer, then netrw's s:NetrwGetWord(). Jun 22, 2016 * Netrw was executing all its associated Filetype commands silently; I'm going to try doing that "noisily" and see if folks have a problem with that. Aug 12, 2016 * Changed order of tool selection for handling http://... viewing. (Nikolay Aleksandrovich Pavlov) Aug 21, 2016 * Included hiding/showing/all for tree listings * Fixed refresh (^L) for tree listings v156: Feb 18, 2016 * Changed =~ to =~# where appropriate Feb 23, 2016 * s:ComposePath(base,subdir) now uses fnameescape() on the base portion Mar 01, 2016 * (gt_macki) reported where :Explore would make file unlisted. Fixed (tst943) Apr 04, 2016 * (reported by John Little) netrw normally suppresses browser messages, but sometimes those "messages" are what is wanted. See g:netrw_suppress_gx_mesg Apr 06, 2016 * (reported by Carlos Pita) deleting a remote file was giving an error message. Fixed. Apr 08, 2016 * (Charles Cooper) had a problem with an undefined b:netrw_curdir. He also provided a fix. Apr 20, 2016 * Changed s:NetrwGetBuffer(); now uses dictionaries. Also fixed the "No Name" buffer problem. v155: Oct 29, 2015 * (Timur Fayzrakhmanov) reported that netrw's mapping of ctrl-l was not allowing refresh of other windows when it was done in a netrw window. Nov 05, 2015 * Improved s:TreeSqueezeDir() to use search() instead of a loop * NetrwBrowse() will return line to w:netrw_bannercnt if cursor ended up in banner Nov 16, 2015 * Added a <Plug>NetrwTreeSqueeze (netrw-s-cr) Nov 17, 2015 * Commented out imaps -- perhaps someone can tell me how they're useful and should be retained? Nov 20, 2015 * Added netrw-ma and netrw-mA support Nov 20, 2015 * gx (netrw-gx) on a URL downloaded the file in addition to simply bringing up the URL in a browser. Fixed. Nov 23, 2015 * Added g:netrw_sizestyle support Nov 27, 2015 * Inserted a lot of <c-u>s into various netrw maps. Jan 05, 2016 * netrw-qL implemented to mark files based upon location-lists; similar to netrw-qF. Jan 19, 2016 * using - call delete(directoryname,"d") - instead of using g:netrw_localrmdir if v7.4 + patch#1107 is available Jan 28, 2016 * changed to using winsaveview() and winrestview() Jan 28, 2016 * s:NetrwTreePath() now does a save and restore of view Feb 08, 2016 * Fixed a tree-listing problem with remote directories v154: Feb 26, 2015 * (Yuri Kanivetsky) reported a situation where a file was not treated properly as a file due to g:netrw_keepdir == 1 Mar 25, 2015 * (requested by Ben Friz) one may now sort by extension Mar 28, 2015 * (requested by Matt Brooks) netrw has a lot of buffer-local mappings; however, some plugins (such as vim-surround) set up conflicting mappings that cause vim to wait. The "<nowait>" modifier has been included with most of netrw's mappings to avoid that delay. Jun 26, 2015 * netrw-gn mapping implemented * :Ntree NotADir resulted in having the tree listing expand in the error messages window. Fixed. Jun 29, 2015 * Attempting to delete a file remotely caused an error with "keepsol" mentioned; fixed. Jul 08, 2015 * Several changes to keep the :jumps table correct when working with g:netrw_fastbrowse set to 2 * wide listing with accented characters fixed (using %-S instead of %-s with a printf() Jul 13, 2015 * (Daniel Hahler) CheckIfKde() could be true but kfmclient not installed. Changed order in netrw#BrowseX(): checks if kde and kfmclient, then will use xdg-open on a unix system (if xdg-open is executable) Aug 11, 2015 * (McDonnell) tree listing mode wouldn't select a file in a open subdirectory. * (McDonnell) when multiple subdirectories were concurrently open in tree listing mode, a ctrl-L wouldn't refresh properly. * The netrw:target menu showed duplicate entries Oct 13, 2015 * (mattn) provided an exception to handle windows with shellslash set but no shell Oct 23, 2015 * if g:netrw_usetab and <c-tab> now used to control whether NetrwShrink is used (see netrw-c-tab) v153: May 13, 2014 * added another g:netrw_ffkeep usage {{{2 May 14, 2014 * changed s:PerformListing() so that it always sets ft=netrw for netrw buffers (ie. even when syntax highlighting is off, not available, etc) May 16, 2014 * introduced the netrw-ctrl-r functionality May 17, 2014 * introduced the netrw-:NetrwMB functionality * mb and mB (netrw-mb, netrw-mB) will add/remove marked files from bookmark list May 20, 2014 * (Enno Nagel) reported that :Lex <dirname> wasn't working. Fixed. May 26, 2014 * restored test to prevent leftmouse window resizing from causing refresh. (see s:NetrwLeftmouse()) * fixed problem where a refresh caused cursor to go just under the banner instead of staying put May 28, 2014 * (László Bimba) provided a patch for opening the :Lexplore window 100% high, optionally on the right, and will work with remote files. May 29, 2014 * implemented :NetrwC (see netrw-:NetrwC) Jun 01, 2014 * Removed some "silent"s from commands used to implemented scp://... and pscp://... directory listing. Permits request for password to appear. Jun 05, 2014 * (Enno Nagel) reported that user maps "/" caused problems with "b" and "w", which are mapped (for wide listings only) to skip over files rather than just words. Jun 10, 2014 * g:netrw_gx introduced to allow users to override default "<cfile>" with the gx (netrw-gx) map Jun 11, 2014 * gx (netrw-gx), with 'autowrite' set, will write modified files. s:NetrwBrowseX() will now save, turn off, and restore the 'autowrite' setting. Jun 13, 2014 * added visual map for gx use Jun 15, 2014 * (Enno Nagel) reported that with having hls set and wide listing style in use, that the b and w maps caused unwanted highlighting. Jul 05, 2014 * netrw-mv and netrw-mX commands included Jul 09, 2014 * g:netrw_keepj included, allowing optional keepj Jul 09, 2014 * fixing bugs due to previous update Jul 21, 2014 * (Bruno Sutic) provided an updated netrw_gitignore.vim Jul 30, 2014 * (Yavuz Yetim) reported that editing two remote files of the same name caused the second instance to have a "temporary" name. Fixed: now they use the same buffer. Sep 18, 2014 * (Yasuhiro Matsumoto) provided a patch which allows scp and windows local paths to work. Oct 07, 2014 * gx (see netrw-gx) when atop a directory, will now do gf instead Nov 06, 2014 * For cygwin: cygstart will be available for netrw#BrowseX() to use if its executable. Nov 07, 2014 * Began support for file://... urls. Will use g:netrw_file_cmd (typically elinks or links) Dec 02, 2014 * began work on having mc (netrw-mc) copy directories. Works for linux machines, cygwin+vim, but not for windows+gvim. Dec 02, 2014 * in tree mode, netrw was not opening directories via symbolic links. Dec 02, 2014 * added resolved link information to thin and tree modes Dec 30, 2014 * (issue#231) :ls was not showing remote-file buffers reliably. Fixed. v152: Apr 08, 2014 * uses the 'noswapfile' option (requires {{{2 vim 7.4 with patch 213) * (Enno Nagel) turn 'rnu' off in netrw buffers. * (Quinn Strahl) suggested that netrw allow regular window splitting to occur, thereby allowing 'equalalways' to take effect. * (qingtian zhao) normally, netrw will save and restore the 'fileformat'; however, sometimes that isn't wanted Apr 14, 2014 * whenever netrw marks a buffer as ro, it will also mark it as nomod. Apr 16, 2014 * sftp protocol now supported by netrw#Obtain(); this means that one may use "mc" to copy a remote file to a local file using sftp, and that the netrw-O command can obtain remote files via sftp. * added [count]C support (see netrw-C) Apr 18, 2014 * when g:netrw_chgwin is one more than the last window, then vertically split the last window and use it as the chgwin window. May 09, 2014 * SavePosn was "saving filename under cursor" from a non-netrw window when using :Rex. v151: Jan 22, 2014 * extended :Rexplore to return to buffer {{{2 prior to Explore or editing a directory * (Ken Takata) netrw gave error when clipboard was disabled. Sol'n: Placed several if has("clipboard") tests in. * Fixed ftp://X@Y@Z// problem; X@Y now part of user id, and only Z is part of hostname. * (A Loumiotis) reported that completion using a directory name containing spaces did not work. Fixed with a retry in netrw#Explore() which removes the backslashes vim inserted. Feb 26, 2014 * :Rexplore now records the current file using w:netrw_rexfile when returning via :Rexplore Mar 08, 2014 * (David Kotchan) provided some patches allowing netrw to work properly with windows shares. * Multiple one-liner help messages available by pressing <cr> while atop the "Quick Help" line * worked on ShellCmdPost, FocusGained event handling. * :Lexplore path: will be used to update a left-side netrw browsing directory. Mar 12, 2014 * netrw-s-cr: use <s-cr> to close tree directory implemented Mar 13, 2014 * (Tony Mechylynck) reported that using the browser with ftp on a directory, and selecting a gzipped txt file, that an E19 occurred (which was issued by gzip.vim). Fixed. Mar 14, 2014 * Implemented :MF and :MT (see netrw-:MF and netrw-:MT, respectively) Mar 17, 2014 * :Ntree [dir] wasn't working properly; fixed Mar 18, 2014 * Changed all uses of set to setl Mar 18, 2014 * Commented the netrw_btkeep line in s:NetrwOptionSave(); the effect is that netrw buffers will remain as 'bt'=nofile. This should prevent swapfiles being created for netrw buffers. Mar 20, 2014 * Changed all uses of lcd to use s:NetrwLcd() instead. Consistent error handling results and it also handles Window's shares * Fixed netrw-d command when applied with ftp * https: support included for netrw#NetRead() v150: Jul 12, 2013 * removed a "keepalt" to allow ":e #" to {{{2 return to the netrw directory listing Jul 13, 2013 * (Jonas Diemer) suggested changing a <cWORD> to <cfile>. Jul 21, 2013 * (Yuri Kanivetsky) reported that netrw's use of mkdir did not produce directories following the user's umask. Aug 27, 2013 * introduced g:netrw_altfile option Sep 05, 2013 * s:Strlen() now uses strdisplaywidth() when available, by default Sep 12, 2013 * (Selyano Baldo) reported that netrw wasn't opening some directories properly from the command line. Nov 09, 2013 * :Lexplore introduced * (Ondrej Platek) reported an issue with netrw's trees (P15). Fixed. * (Jorge Solis) reported that "t" in tree mode caused netrw to forget its line position. Dec 05, 2013 * Added <s-leftmouse> file marking (see netrw-mf) Dec 05, 2013 * (Yasuhiro Matsumoto) Explore should use strlen() instead s:Strlen() when handling multibyte chars with strpart() (ie. strpart() is byte oriented, not display-width oriented). Dec 09, 2013 * (Ken Takata) Provided a patch; File sizes and a portion of timestamps were wrongly highlighted with the directory color when setting :let g:netrw_liststyle=1 on Windows. * (Paul Domaskis) noted that sometimes cursorline was activating in non-netrw windows. All but one setting of cursorline was done via setl; there was one that was overlooked. Fixed. Dec 24, 2013 * (esquifit) asked that netrw allow the /cygdrive prefix be a user-alterable parameter. Jan 02, 2014 * Fixed a problem with netrw-based balloon evaluation (ie. netrw#NetrwBalloonHelp() not having been loaded error messages) Jan 03, 2014 * Fixed a problem with tree listings * New command installed: :Ntree Jan 06, 2014 * (Ivan Brennan) reported a problem with netrw-P. Fixed. Jan 06, 2014 * Fixed a problem with netrw-P when the modified file was to be abandoned. Jan 15, 2014 * (Matteo Cavalleri) reported that when the banner is suppressed and tree listing is used, a blank line was left at the top of the display. Fixed. Jan 20, 2014 * (Gideon Go) reported that, in tree listing style, with a previous window open, that the wrong directory was being used to open a file. Fixed. (P21) v149: Apr 18, 2013 * in wide listing format, now have maps for {{{2 w and b to move to next/previous file Apr 26, 2013 * one may now copy files in the same directory; netrw will issue requests for what names the files should be copied under Apr 29, 2013 * Trying Benzinger's problem again. Seems that commenting out the BufEnter and installing VimEnter (only) works. Weird problem! (tree listing, vim -O Dir1 Dir2) May 01, 2013 * :Explore ftp://... wasn't working. Fixed. May 02, 2013 * introduced g:netrw_bannerbackslash as requested by Paul Domaskis. Jul 03, 2013 * Explore now avoids splitting when a buffer will be hidden. v148: Apr 16, 2013 * changed Netrw's Style menu to allow direct {{{2 choice of listing style, hiding style, and sorting style
07/29/09 : banner :|g:netrw_banner| can be used to suppress the suppression banner. This feature is new and experimental, so its in the process of being debugged. 09/04/09 : "gp" : See if it can be made to work for remote systems. : See if it can be made to work with marked files.
Vim editor by Bram Moolenaar (Thanks, Bram!) dav support by C Campbell fetch support by Bram Moolenaar and C Campbell ftp support by C Campbell <[email protected]> http support by Bram Moolenaar <[email protected]> rcp rsync support by C Campbell (suggested by Erik Warendorph) scp support by raf <[email protected]> sftp support by C Campbell
inputsecret(), BufReadCmd, BufWriteCmd contributed by C Campbell
Jérôme Augé -- also using new buffer method with ftp+.netrc Bram Moolenaar -- obviously vim itself, :e and v:cmdarg use, fetch,... Yasuhiro Matsumoto -- pointing out undo+0r problem and a solution Erik Warendorph -- for several suggestions (g:netrw_..._cmd variables, rsync etc) Doug Claar -- modifications to test for success with ftp operation
Commands index
Quick reference